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Thu, Jul 15, 2004 10:59 pm

Missing Hibernate Button

I didn't see a Hibernate option on a Gateway model 600YG2 laptop running Windows XP when I clicked on Start and selected Turn Off Computer. But when I looked under Power Options within the Control Panel, the "Enable Hibernation" checkbox under the Hibernation tab was checked.

The three buttons that appear when I select Start then Turn Off Computer are Stand By, Turn Off, and Restart.

It is still possible to place the system in hibernate mode, however, by hitting the shift key when you move the mouse to place the cursor over the Stand By button. The button will change from Stand By to Hibernate and you can click on the button then to put the system in Hibernate mode.

Microsoft covers the issue in Knowledge Base Article 291790

The difference between Hibernate and Standby mode is that in Standby mode the system goes into a low power mode saving information on the current state of the system and open applications in memory. In hibernate mode, the system stores that information on the hard disk in the hibernation file Hiberfil.sys. The system can return to its previous state quickly from standby mode, since accessing information in memory is very quick. It takes more time to restore the system from hibernate mode, since the system must read information from the hard disk for which access is much slower. But hibernate mode has the advantage of storing the information indefinitely even if the system is not connected to a power source. With a laptop in standby mode, if you don't have it plugged into a power source, eventually the battery will be drained and the contents of memory will be lost, since information only stays in memory if it is constantly refreshed. It doesn't take much power to keep the memory refreshed, so you may be able to stay in standby mode for many hours, but eventually the battery will be depleted and the information will be lost.

You can choose to have the system go into hibernate mode when you hit the power button, rather than powering off by the following steps:

  1. Click on Start
  2. Select Control Panel
  3. Click on Performance and Maintenance. If you don't see Performance and Maintenance then you may have set the Control Panel display to "Classic" mode, in which case you can proceed to the next step.
  4. Click on Power Options
  5. Click on the Advanced tab
  6. Change the setting for When I press the power button on my computer to Hibernate
  7. Click on OK

[/os/windows/xp] permanent link

Thu, Jul 15, 2004 12:06 pm

Forwarding Email

If you are using a Unix or Linux system, you can redirect email sent to your account on that system to another account using a .forward file. You will need to create this file in your root directory, i.e. the one you are normally placed in when you log into the system.

You can create this file with any text editor or you can use the echo command to create the file as shown below.

echo '' > .forward

The above command will create a .forward file in the current directory. If you've placed it in your root directory, any email now sent to your account will instead be sent back out of the system to

Suppose you want to get the email in your inbox on the system, but also want it forwarded to another address. Let's assume your userid on the system is liz and you want the email to go to the same address as in the first example as well. You can then create the .forward file with the command below.

echo '\liz,' > .forward

You need to put a "\" before the username, so that the system knows that it doesn't have to do any further forwarding for the account name you are placing after the "\". If you want messages to go to additional addresses, just add them onto the line with commas between the addresses.

When you use the ">" you are overwriting any existing .forward file, so, if you already have a .forward file and want to keep a copy of it, use a command such as the one below to copy it before issuing the echo command.

cp .forward .forward-old

If you want to stop forwarding, you need to remove the .forward file. If you want to stop forwarding, but want to keep the file available for future use, you can rename it as shown below.

mv .forward .forward-old

You may need to set appropriate permissions on the .forward file in order for the program processing email to be able to read your email file. Use the command below to make the .forward file "world-readable".

chmod 644 .forward

The six ensures that you can both read and alter the file, while the two fours ensure that the file is both group and world readable, but only you can delete or alter the file. Don't make the file group writeable, i.e. don't use chmod 664. If the file has group write permission set on it, sendmail won't use it and forwarding won't occur.

You can check the permissions on the file using the command ls -al .forward. Files that have a filename beginning with a period are considered hidden, so won't show up with just an ls command, so you need to use the -a option to show all files. You should see something like the following.

-rw-r--r--    1 liz      liz            29 Jul 14 23:06 /home/liz/.forward

If you have root access, you can check how sendmail will handle delivery of email to the liz account now by logging on as root and issuing the sendmail -bv command as below:

sendmail -bv liz
\liz... deliverable: mailer local, user \liz deliverable: mailer esmtp, host, user

When you are forwarding email, you need to be careful to not create an infinite loop, e.g. where email is forwarded to an account that forwards it again to the orginal account.


  1. Mail forwarding using .forward files

[/network/email/sendmail] permanent link

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