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Sat, Jul 01, 2006 9:36 pm

Restarting Services with svcadm on Solaris 10 Systems

On systems running Solaris 10, you can restart services using the svcadm command. For instance, to restart the SSH daemon on Solaris 10 systems, from the root account use svcadm restart ssh.

# svcadm
Usage: svcadm [-v] [cmd [args ... ]]

        svcadm enable [-rst]  ...      - enable and online service(s)
        svcadm disable [-st]  ...      - disable and offline service(s)        svcadm restart  ...            - restart specified service(s)
        svcadm refresh  ...            - re-read service configuration
        svcadm mark [-It]   ... - set maintenance state
        svcadm clear  ...              - clear maintenance state
        svcadm milestone [-d]        - advance to a service milestone
        Services can be specified using an FMRI, abbreviation, or fnmatch(5)
        pattern, as shown in these examples for svc:/network/smtp:sendmail

        svcadm  svc:/network/smtp:sendmail
        svcadm  network/smtp:sendmail
        svcadm  network/*mail
        svcadm  network/smtp
        svcadm  smtp:sendmail
        svcadm  smtp
        svcadm  sendmail

[/os/unix/solaris] permanent link

Sat, Jul 01, 2006 9:27 pm

Writing An ISO File to CD or DVD with Solaris

Solaris, at least version 10, provides the cdrw utility that can be used to write information to CDs or DVDs. To list all of the CD or DVD writers available on the system, you can use the cdrw -l command.

When I used the command on an x86-based Solaris system without any media in the drive, I saw the following:

# cdrw -l
Looking for CD devices...
No CD writers found or no media in the drive.

I placed a blank DVD in the DVD writer and tried again. I then saw the DVD writer listed.

# cdrw -l
Looking for CD devices...
    Node                   Connected Device                Device type
 cdrom0               | DVDRW    IDE 16X          A188 | CD Reader/Writer

You can also use the command iostat -En to see information on the CD or DVD writers in a system.

# iostat -En
c0t1d0           Soft Errors: 21 Hard Errors: 3 Transport Errors: 0
Vendor: DVDRW    Product: IDE 16X          Revision: A188 Serial No:
Size: 0.00GB <8192 bytes>
Media Error: 0 Device Not Ready: 2 No Device: 1 Recoverable: 0
Illegal Request: 21 Predictive Failure Analysis: 0

If you have an .iso file, i.e. an image of a CD or DVD that you wish to write to a CD or DVD, you can use the command cdrw -i someimage.iso to write an image to a blank disc in a CD or DVD writer as in the example below.

# cdrw -i sol-10-u2-companion-ga.iso
Looking for CD devices...
Initializing device...done.
Writing track 1...done
Finalizing (Can take several minutes)...done.

If you wish to specify the device to use for writing, such as in the case where a system may have multiple devices capable of writing to CDs or DVDs, e.g. one CD writer and one DVD writer, you can use the -d option to specify the device to use for writing.

cdrw -i -d cdrom0 sol-10-u2-ga-x86-dvd.iso

The cdrw command supports the following options:

     -a       Creates an audio disk. At least one audio-file name
              must  be  specified. A CD can not have more than 99
              audio tracks, so no more than 99 audio files can be
              specified. Also, the maximum audio data that can be
              written to the media  by  default  is  74  minutes,
              unless -C is specified.

     -b       Blanks CD-RW or DVD-RW media. The type  of  erasing
              must  be  specified  by  the  all, fast, or session
              argument. DVD+RW media does not  support  blanking,
              but can be rewritten without the need for blanking.

     -c       Copies a CD. If no other argument is specified, the
              default  CD  writing  device  is  assumed to be the
              source device as  well.  In  this  case,  the  copy
              operation  reads  the source media into a temporary
              directory and prompts you to place  a  blank  media
              into the drive for the copy operation to proceed.

     -C       Uses stated media capacity.  Without  this  option,
              cdrw  uses  a  default value for writable CD media,
              which is 74 minutes  for  an  audio  CD,  681984000
              bytes for a data CD, or 4.7 Gbytes for a DVD.

     -d       Specifies the CD or DVD writing device.

     -h       Help. Prints usage message.

     -i       Specifies the image file for creating data  CDs  or
              DVDs. The file size should be less than what can be
              written on the media.  Also,  consider  having  the
              file  locally  available instead of having the file
              on an NFS-mounted file system. The CD writing  pro-
              cess  expects  data  to  be  available continuously
              without interruptions.

     -l       Lists all the CD or DVD writers  available  on  the

      -L       Closes the disk. If the media was left in  an  open
              state  after the last write operation, it is closed
              to prevent any further writing. This operation  can
              only be done on re-writable CD-RW media.

     -m       Uses an alternate temporary  directory  instead  of
              the  default  temporary directory for storing track
              data while copying a CD or DVD. An  alternate  tem-
              porary  directory  might  be  required  because the
              amount of data on a CD can be  huge.  For  example,
              the amount of data can be as much as 800 Mbytes for
              an 80 minute audio CD and 4.7 Gbytes for a DVD. The
              default  temporary  directory  might  not have that
              much space available.

     -M       Reports media status. cdrw reports if the media  is
              blank  or  not,  its  table  of  contents, the last
              session's start  address,  and  the  next  writable
              address  if  the disk is open. DVD+RW does not sup-
              port erasing and always has  some  content  on  the

     -O       Keeps the disk open. cdrw closes the  session,  but
              it  keeps the disk open so that another session can
              be added later on to create a multisession disk.

     -p       Sets the CD writing speed. For example, -p  4  sets
              the  speed  to 4X. If this option is not specified,
              cdrw uses the default speed of the  CD  writer.  If
              this  option  is  specified,  cdrw tries to set the
              drive write speed to this value, but  there  is  no
              guarantee  of  the actual speed that is used by the

     -s       Specifies the source device for  copying  a  CD  or

     -S       Simulation mode. In this mode, cdrw  operates  with
              the  drive  laser turned off, so nothing is written
              to the media. Use this option to verify if the sys-
              tem  can  provide data at a rate good enough for CD

     -T       Audio format to use for extracting audio  files  or
              for  reading audio files for audio CD creation. The
              audio-type can be sun, wav, cda, or aur.

     -v       Verbose mode.

     -x       Extracts audio data from an audio track.

[/os/unix/solaris] permanent link

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