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Sun, Jan 27, 2008 10:44 pm

Upgrade of Apache From Version 2.0.39 to Version 2.0.59

A scan of a Solaris 7 system found several vulnerabilities for Apache on the system. Most of them appeared to be due to the version of Apache on the system not being up-to-date. I checked the version of Apache running on the system by using telnet to connect to port 80 and then issuing the HEAD / HTTP/1.0 command.
# telnet 127.0.0.1 80
Trying 127.0.0.1...
Connected to 127.0.0.1.
Escape character is '^]'.
HEAD / HTTP/1.0

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Fri, 25 Jan 2008 03:29:30 GMT
Server: Apache/2.0.39 (Unix)
Last-Modified: Thu, 29 Nov 2007 04:39:44 GMT
ETag: "89124-5df-e729c400"
Accept-Ranges: bytes
Content-Length: 1503
Connection: close
Content-Type: text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1

Connection closed by foreign host.

The version was 2.0.39, so it was out-of-date. You can also check the version with the apachectl command.

# /usr/local/apache2/bin/apachectl -v
Server version: Apache/2.0.39
Server built:   Jun 26 2002 01:03:14

Version 2.0.59 is the current version listed at Sunfreeware.com - SPARC/Solaris 7 Packages.

The dependencies statement for Apache 2.0.59 listed libiconv as a dependency and stated "you may need /usr/local/lib/libgcc_s.so.1 either from the libgcc-3.3 or gcc-3.3.2 or higher packages." When I checked the version of gcc with gcc -v, I saw it was 3.0.4. So I first upgraded libiconv.

I installed libiconv 1.11 on a Sun SPARC Solaris 7 system. I obtained the package from Sunfreeware.com - SPARC/Solaris 7 Packages.

# gunzip libiconv-1.11-sol7-sparc-local.gz
# pkgadd -d libiconv-1.11-sol7-sparc-local

The following packages are available:
  1  SMCliconv     libiconv
                   (sparc) 1.11

Select package(s) you wish to process (or 'all' to process
all packages). (default: all) [?,??,q]: all

Processing package instance <SMCliconv> from </home/jdoe/libiconv-1.11-sol7-sparc-local>

libiconv
(sparc) 1.11
Bruno Haible
Using </usr/local> as the package base directory.
## Processing package information.
## Processing system information.
   12 package pathnames are already properly installed.
## Verifying disk space requirements.
## Checking for conflicts with packages already installed.

The following files are already installed on the system and are being
used by another package:
  /usr/local/bin/iconv
  /usr/local/doc/libiconv/ABOUT-NLS
  /usr/local/doc/libiconv/AUTHORS
  /usr/local/doc/libiconv/COPYING.LIB
  /usr/local/doc/libiconv/ChangeLog
  /usr/local/doc/libiconv/DESIGN
  /usr/local/doc/libiconv/INSTALL.generic
  /usr/local/doc/libiconv/NEWS
  /usr/local/doc/libiconv/NOTES
  /usr/local/doc/libiconv/PORTS
  /usr/local/doc/libiconv/README
  /usr/local/doc/libiconv/README.djgpp
  /usr/local/doc/libiconv/README.os2
  /usr/local/doc/libiconv/README.woe32
  /usr/local/doc/libiconv/THANKS
  /usr/local/include/iconv.h
  /usr/local/include/libcharset.h
  /usr/local/lib/libcharset.a
  /usr/local/lib/libcharset.la
[Hit <RETURN> to continue display]

  /usr/local/lib/libcharset.so.1.0.0
  /usr/local/lib/libiconv.la
  /usr/local/lib/libiconv.so
  /usr/local/lib/libiconv.so.2
  /usr/local/man/man1/iconv.1
  /usr/local/man/man3/iconv.3
  /usr/local/man/man3/iconv_close.3
  /usr/local/man/man3/iconv_open.3

* - conflict with a file which does not belong to any package.

Do you want to install these conflicting files [y,n,?,q] y
## Checking for setuid/setgid programs.

Installing libiconv as <SMCliconv>

## Installing part 1 of 1.
/usr/local/bin/iconv
/usr/local/doc/libiconv/ABOUT-NLS
/usr/local/doc/libiconv/AUTHORS
/usr/local/doc/libiconv/COPYING.LIB
/usr/local/doc/libiconv/ChangeLog
/usr/local/doc/libiconv/DESIGN
/usr/local/doc/libiconv/INSTALL.generic
/usr/local/doc/libiconv/NEWS
/usr/local/doc/libiconv/NOTES
/usr/local/doc/libiconv/PORTS
/usr/local/doc/libiconv/README
/usr/local/doc/libiconv/README.djgpp
/usr/local/doc/libiconv/README.os2
/usr/local/doc/libiconv/README.woe32
/usr/local/doc/libiconv/THANKS
/usr/local/include/iconv.h
/usr/local/include/libcharset.h
/usr/local/include/localcharset.h
/usr/local/lib/libcharset.a
/usr/local/lib/libcharset.la
/usr/local/lib/libcharset.so.1.0.0
/usr/local/lib/libiconv.la
/usr/local/lib/libiconv.so <symbolic link>
/usr/local/lib/libiconv.so.2 <symbolic link>
/usr/local/lib/libiconv.so.2.4.0
/usr/local/lib/preloadable_libiconv.so
/usr/local/man/man1/iconv.1
/usr/local/man/man3/iconv.3
/usr/local/man/man3/iconv_close.3
/usr/local/man/man3/iconv_open.3
/usr/local/man/man3/iconvctl.3
/usr/local/share/doc/iconv.1.html
/usr/local/share/doc/iconv.3.html
/usr/local/share/doc/iconv_close.3.html
/usr/local/share/doc/iconv_open.3.html
/usr/local/share/doc/iconvctl.3.html
[ verifying class <none> ]

Installation of <SMCliconv> was successful.

Since libintl was listed as a dependency for libiconv, I tried to determine if libintl on the system was the latest version. I looked for libiintl files on the system. I found several.

# find / -name libintl\* -print
/usr/lib/sparcv9/libintl.so
/usr/lib/sparcv9/libintl.so.1
/usr/lib/libintl.so
/usr/lib/libintl.so.1
/usr/lib/libintl.a
/usr/include/libintl.h
/usr/share/man/sman4/libintl.4
/usr/local/lib/gcc-lib/sparc-sun-solaris2.7/3.0.4/include/libintl.h

When I looked in /usr/include/libintl.h, I saw it was version 1.12, so I upgraded libintl to the 3.4.0 version from Sunfreeware.com - SPARC/Solaris 7 Packages.

# gunzip libintl-3.4.0-sol7-sparc-local.gz
# pkgadd -d libintl-3.4.0-sol7-sparc-local

The following packages are available:
  1  SMClintl     libintl
                  (sparc) 3.4.0

Select package(s) you wish to process (or 'all' to process
all packages). (default: all) [?,??,q]:

Processing package instance <SMClintl> from </home/jdoe/libintl-3.4.0-sol7-sparc-local>

libintl
(sparc) 3.4.0
FSF
Using </usr/local> as the package base directory.
## Processing package information.
## Processing system information.
   2 package pathnames are already properly installed.
## Verifying disk space requirements.
## Checking for conflicts with packages already installed.
## Checking for setuid/setgid programs.

Installing libintl as <SMClintl>

## Installing part 1 of 1.
/usr/local/include/libintl.h
/usr/local/lib/libintl.a
/usr/local/lib/libintl.la
/usr/local/lib/libintl.so <symbolic link>
/usr/local/lib/libintl.so.3 <symbolic link>
/usr/local/lib/libintl.so.3.4.0
/usr/local/lib/libintl.so.8 <symbolic link>
/usr/local/lib/libintl.so.8.0.2
[ verifying class <none> ]

Installation of <SMClintl> was successful.

I then upgraded gcc.

# gunzip gcc-3.4.6-sol7-sparc-local.gz
# pkgadd -d gcc-3.4.6-sol7-sparc-local

The following packages are available:
  1  SMCgcc     gcc
                (sparc) 3.4.6

Select package(s) you wish to process (or 'all' to process
all packages). (default: all) [?,??,q]:

Processing package instance <SMCgcc> from </tmp/testing/gcc-3.4.6-sol7-sparc-local>

gcc
(sparc) 3.4.6
FSF
Using </usr/local> as the package base directory.
## Processing package information.
## Processing system information.
   10 package pathnames are already properly installed.
## Verifying disk space requirements.
## Checking for conflicts with packages already installed.

The following files are already installed on the system and are being
used by another package:
* /usr/local/bin/c++
* /usr/local/bin/cpp
* /usr/local/bin/g++
* /usr/local/bin/g77
* /usr/local/bin/gcc
* /usr/local/bin/gccbug
* /usr/local/bin/gcov
* /usr/local/bin/sparc-sun-solaris2.7-c++
* /usr/local/bin/sparc-sun-solaris2.7-g++
* /usr/local/bin/sparc-sun-solaris2.7-gcc
* /usr/local/info <attribute change only>
* /usr/local/info/cpp.info
* /usr/local/info/cppinternals.info
* /usr/local/info/g77.info
* /usr/local/info/gcc.info
* /usr/local/lib/libgcc_s.so.1
* /usr/local/lib/libiberty.a
* /usr/local/lib/libstdc++.a
* /usr/local/lib/libstdc++.la
[Hit <RETURN> to continue display]

* /usr/local/lib/libsupc++.a
* /usr/local/lib/libsupc++.la
* /usr/local/man/man1/cpp.1
* /usr/local/man/man1/g++.1
* /usr/local/man/man1/g77.1
* /usr/local/man/man1/gcc.1
* /usr/local/man/man1/gcov.1
* /usr/local/man/man7 <attribute change only>
* /usr/local/man/man7/fsf-funding.7
* /usr/local/man/man7/gfdl.7
* /usr/local/man/man7/gpl.7
* /usr/local/share/locale <attribute change only>
* /usr/local/share/locale/be <attribute change only>
* /usr/local/share/locale/be/LC_MESSAGES <attribute change only>
* /usr/local/share/locale/ca <attribute change only>
* /usr/local/share/locale/ca/LC_MESSAGES <attribute change only>
* /usr/local/share/locale/da <attribute change only>
* /usr/local/share/locale/da/LC_MESSAGES <attribute change only>
* /usr/local/share/locale/de <attribute change only>
* /usr/local/share/locale/de/LC_MESSAGES <attribute change only>
[Hit <RETURN< to continue display]

* /usr/local/share/locale/el <attribute change only>
* /usr/local/share/locale/el/LC_MESSAGES <attribute change only>
* /usr/local/share/locale/es <attribute change only>
* /usr/local/share/locale/es/LC_MESSAGES <attribute change only>
* /usr/local/share/locale/fr <attribute change only>
* /usr/local/share/locale/fr/LC_MESSAGES <attribute change only>
* /usr/local/share/locale/ja <attribute change only>
* /usr/local/share/locale/ja/LC_MESSAGES <attribute change only>
* /usr/local/share/locale/nl <attribute change only>
* /usr/local/share/locale/nl/LC_MESSAGES <attribute change only>
* /usr/local/share/locale/sv <attribute change only>
* /usr/local/share/locale/sv/LC_MESSAGES <attribute change only>
* /usr/local/share/locale/tr <attribute change only>
* /usr/local/share/locale/tr/LC_MESSAGES <attribute change only>

* - conflict with a file which does not belong to any package.

Do you want to install these conflicting files [y,n,?,q] y
<text snipped>
/usr/local/share/locale/tr/LC_MESSAGES/gcc.mo
[ verifying class <none> ]

Installation of <SMCgcc> was successful.

I then downloaded the 2.0.59 version of Apache and installed it.

# gunzip apache-2.0.59-sol7-sparc-local.gz
# pkgadd -d apache-2.0.59-sol7-sparc-local

The following packages are available:
  1  SMCap2059     apache
                   (sparc) 2.0.59

Select package(s) you wish to process (or 'all' to process
all packages). (default: all) [?,??,q]:

Processing package instance <SMCap2059> from </home/jdoe/apache-2.0.59-sol7-sparc-local>

apache
(sparc) 2.0.59
The Apache Group
Using </usr/local/apache2> as the package base directory.
## Processing package information.
## Processing system information.
## Verifying disk space requirements.
## Checking for conflicts with packages already installed.

The following files are already installed on the system and are being
used by another package:
* /usr/local/apache2/bin <attribute change only>
* /usr/local/apache2/bin/ab
* /usr/local/apache2/bin/apachectl
* /usr/local/apache2/bin/apr-config
* /usr/local/apache2/bin/apu-config
* /usr/local/apache2/bin/apxs
* /usr/local/apache2/bin/checkgid
* /usr/local/apache2/bin/dbmmanage
* /usr/local/apache2/bin/envvars
* /usr/local/apache2/bin/envvars-std
* /usr/local/apache2/bin/htdbm
* /usr/local/apache2/bin/htdigest
* /usr/local/apache2/bin/htpasswd
* /usr/local/apache2/bin/httpd
* /usr/local/apache2/bin/logresolve
* /usr/local/apache2/bin/rotatelogs
* /usr/local/apache2/build <attribute change only>
* /usr/local/apache2/build/config_vars.mk
* /usr/local/apache2/build/instdso.sh
[Hit <RETURN> to continue display]

<text snipped>

* /usr/local/apache2/manual/vhosts/index.html.en
* /usr/local/apache2/manual/vhosts/ip-based.html
* /usr/local/apache2/manual/vhosts/mass.html
* /usr/local/apache2/manual/vhosts/name-based.html
* /usr/local/apache2/manual/vhosts/name-based.html.en
* /usr/local/apache2/modules <attribute change only>
* /usr/local/apache2/modules/httpd.exp

* - conflict with a file which does not belong to any package.

Do you want to install these conflicting files [y,n,?,q] y

[ verifying class <none> ]

Installation of <SMCap2059> was successful.

When I tried to restart Apache to run the new version, I received the message below:

# ../bin/apachectl restart
Syntax error on line 344 of /usr/local/apache2/conf/httpd.conf:
Invalid command 'Order', perhaps mis-spelled or defined by a module not included in the server configuration

When I checked what was at line 344, I found Order allow,deny.

<Directory "/usr/local/apache2/htdocs">
<text snipped>
#
# Controls who can get stuff from this server.
#
    Order allow,deny
    Allow from all

</Directory>

I commented out the "order" and "allow" lines to see what would happen. I then received an error message concerning the UserDir command in httpd.conf.

I checked the compiled-in modules for Apache with httpd -l and saw the following:

# ../bin/httpd -l
Compiled in modules:
  core.c
  prefork.c
  http_core.c
  mod_so.c

The order command requires the mod_access module to be loaded in Apache. It was apparently compiled into the previous version I had running on the system, but it isn't compiled into the current version, so I added LoadModule access_module /usr/local/apache2/modules/mod_access.so to /usr/local/apache2/conf/httpd.conf.

#
# Dynamic Shared Object (DSO) Support
#
# To be able to use the functionality of a module which was built as a DSO you
# have to place corresponding `LoadModule' lines at this location so the
# directives contained in it are actually available _before_ they are used.
# Statically compiled modules (those listed by `httpd -l') do not need
# to be loaded here.
#
# Example:
# LoadModule foo_module modules/mod_foo.so
#
LoadModule access_module /usr/local/apache2/modules/mod_access.so

Note: the location of mod_access.so and other modules may be in a different location on other systems, e.g. under Linux it may be at /etc/httpd/modules/mod_access.so. I also discovered later that I should have put LoadModule auth_module /usr/local/apache2/modules/mod_auth.so in as well to address this error as shown at Adding Modules to httpd.conf With Apache 2.

When I added the mod_access.so line and ran apachectl restart, I then received the error message below:

# ../bin/apachectl restart
Syntax error on line 354 of /usr/local/apache2/conf/httpd.conf:
Invalid command 'UserDir', perhaps mis-spelled or defined by a module not 
included in the server configuration

I then added the line LoadModule userdir_module /usr/local/apache2/modules/mod_userdir.so below the LoadModule access_module /usr/local/apache2/modules/mod_access.so line in httpd.conf. That eliminated the error related to the UserDir command, but I then saw another module related error message.

# ../bin/apachectl restart
Syntax error on line 382 of /usr/local/apache2/conf/httpd.conf:
Invalid command 'DirectoryIndex', perhaps mis-spelled or defined by a module not included in the server configuration

I added LoadModule dir_module /usr/local/apache2/modules/mod_dir.so beneath the other LoadModule statements and reran apacectl restart. The error message for DirectoryIndex was eliminated and I got further in the configuration file, but I received another error message when I restarted Apache.

# ../bin/apachectl restart
Syntax error on line 403 of /usr/local/apache2/conf/httpd.conf:
Invalid command 'TypesConfig', perhaps mis-spelled or defined by a module not included in the server configuration

So I then added LoadModule mime_module /usr/local/apache2/modules/mod_mime.so and attempted again to restart Apache. The next error message is shown below.


# ../bin/apachectl restart
Syntax error on line 456 of /usr/local/apache2/conf/httpd.conf:
Invalid command 'LogFormat', perhaps mis-spelled or defined by a module not included in the server configuration

I then added LoadModule log_config_module /usr/local/apache2/modules/mod_log_config.so. When I attempted to restart Apache, I then saw the message below.

# ../bin/apachectl restart
Syntax error on line 506 of /usr/local/apache2/conf/httpd.conf:
Invalid command 'Alias', perhaps mis-spelled or defined by a module not included in the server configuration

I then added LoadModule alias_module /usr/local/apache2/modules/mod_alias.so, which led to the next error message.

# ../bin/apachectl restart
Syntax error on line 576 of /usr/local/apache2/conf/httpd.conf:
Invalid command 'IndexOptions', perhaps mis-spelled or defined by a module not included in the server configuration

I then added LoadModule autoindex_module /usr/local/apache2/modules/mod_audoindex.so and attempted to restart Apache again.

# ../bin/apachectl restart
Syntax error on line 724 of /usr/local/apache2/conf/httpd.conf:
Invalid command 'LanguagePriority', perhaps mis-spelled or defined by a module not included in the server configuration

I added LoadModule negotiation_module /usr/local/apache2/modules/mod_negotiation.so to address that error.

# ../bin/apachectl restart
Syntax error on line 908 of /usr/local/apache2/conf/httpd.conf:
Invalid command 'BrowserMatch', perhaps mis-spelled or defined by a module not included in the server configuration

I then added LoadModule setenvif_module /usr/local/apache2/modules/mod_setevnif.so and attempted to restart again with apachectl restart. At last it restarted without an error message. Yeah! Except when I tried telnet 1270.0.1 80 to connect to the default HTTP port on the local loopback address, it failed.

# telnet 127.0.0.1 80
Trying 127.0.0.1...
telnet: Unable to connect to remote host: Connection refused

When I looked in /usr/local/apache2/logs/error_log, I saw the following:

[Sun Jan 27 22:09:30 2008] [notice] SIGHUP received.  Attempting to restart
Syntax error on line 219 of /usr/local/apache2/conf/httpd.conf:
module access_module is built-in and can't be loaded

So I removed LoadModule access_module /usr/local/apache2/modules/mod_access.so from httpd.conf.

But then I got the Invalid command 'Order' error message again.

# ../bin/apachectl restart
Syntax error on line 352 of /usr/local/apache2/conf/httpd.conf:
Invalid command 'Order', perhaps mis-spelled or defined by a module not included in the server configuration

I put LoadModule access_module /usr/local/apache2/modules/mod_access.so and added LoadModule auth_module /usr/local/apache2/modules/mod_auth.so below it.

# ../bin/apachectl restart
httpd not running, trying to start

I tried connecting to port 80 on the loopback address again. This time I was successful. I entered the command HEAD / HTTP/1.0 and hit return a couple of times. Apache then responded with information showing me that version 2.0.59 was running at last.

I now have the following module section in httpd.conf

#
# Dynamic Shared Object (DSO) Support
#
# To be able to use the functionality of a module which was built as a DSO you
# have to place corresponding `LoadModule' lines at this location so the
# directives contained in it are actually available _before_ they are used.
# Statically compiled modules (those listed by `httpd -l') do not need
# to be loaded here.
#
# Example:
# LoadModule foo_module modules/mod_foo.so
#
LoadModule access_module /usr/local/apache2/modules/mod_access.so
LoadModule auth_module /usr/local/apache2/modules/mod_auth.so
LoadModule userdir_module /usr/local/apache2/modules/mod_userdir.so
LoadModule dir_module /usr/local/apache2/modules/mod_dir.so
LoadModule mime_module /usr/local/apache2/modules/mod_mime.so
LoadModule log_config_module /usr/local/apache2/modules/mod_log_config.so
LoadModule alias_module /usr/local/apache2/modules/mod_alias.so
LoadModule autoindex_module /usr/local/apache2/modules/mod_autoindex.so
LoadModule negotiation_module /usr/local/apache2/modules/mod_negotiation.so
LoadModule setenvif_module /usr/local/apache2/modules/mod_setenvif.so

References:

  1. Adding Modules to httpd.conf With Apache 2
    Posted:2005-03-01
    Network Administration Tools: GNU/Linux, Windows 2003, Windows 2000, NT, and more...

[/os/unix/solaris/network] permanent link

Sun, Jan 27, 2008 7:00 pm

Installing RealVNC 4.1.2 under Windows

I installed the free edition of RealVNC 4.1.2 on a Windows XP system. Windows Defender 1.1.1593 was installed on the system and popped up a warning when I started the installation of RealVNC.

Windows Defender 1.1.1593 alert at RealVNC installation

To get Windows Defender to accept RealVNC, select "always allow" for the action and then click on "Apply Actions".

When you are configuring RealVNC during installation, under the Connections tab in RealVNC, you can set the ports or retain the default ports that will be used for listening for connections, if you are installing the server portion of the software so you can connect remotely to the system you are installing it on. The default values are shown below:

Accept connections on port: 5900
Disconnect idle clients after (seconds): 3600

Serve Java viewer via HTTP on port: 5800

Under Access Control in the Connections section, you can check "Only accept connections from the local machine", if you wnat to require access to be through an SSH connection.

If you install the server portion of the software to run as a service on the Windows system, but don't want it to start automatically, click on the Windows Start button, select Run and type services.msc. Find "VNC Server Version 4" within the services list, double-click on it and change the startup type from "automatic" to "manual", then click on OK.

References:

  1. Malicious Software Encyclopedia: RemoteAccess:Win32/RealVNC
    Published: September 12, 2006
    Microsoft Corporation

[/os/windows/software/remote-control/vnc] permanent link

Sun, Jan 27, 2008 6:01 pm

mshta.exe

The file mshta.exe in c:\windwows\system32 is part of the Windows operating system. Known file sizes on Windows XP are 29184 bytes, 30720 bytes, 45568 bytes, 24064 bytes, and 26624 bytes. The description assigned to it by Microsoft is "Microsoft HTML Application Host". The program is needed to execute .HTA (Hypertext Application) files, which allow applications to be run from HTML documents.

On a Windows XP Tablet PC Edition system with Service Pack 2 installed, I see the following information for the file when I right-click on it and select Properties:

Size:44.5 KB (45,568 bytes)
Created:Thursday, August 23, 2001, 7:00:00 AM
Modified:Monday, August 13, 2007, 6:32:30 PM
File version:7.0.5730.13

At Introduction to HTML Applications (HTAs), Microsoft states the the following in regards to why someone would use HTAs:

Historically, programming languages like C++ and Microsoft Visual Basic have provided the object models and access to system resources that developers demand. With HTAs, Dynamic HTML (DHTML) with script can be added to that list. HTAs not only support everything a Web page does - namely HTML, Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), scripting languages, and behaviors - but also HTA-specific functionality. This added functionality provides control over user interface design and access to the client system. Moreover, run as trusted applications, HTAs are not subject to the same security constraints as Web pages. As with any executable file, the user is asked once, before the HTA is downloaded, whether to save or run the application; if saved to the client machine, it simply runs on demand thereafter. The end result is that an HTA runs like any executable (.exe) written in C++ or Visual Basic.

The .HTA file type can become infected by malware. It is important to note that, as fully trusted applications, HTAs can carry out actions that Internet Explorer would never permit in a Web page. Microsoft also states "In HTAs, the restrictions against allowing script to manipulate the client machine are lifted. For example, all command codes are supported without scripting limitations (see command id). And HTAs have read/write access to the files and system registry on the client machine."

Execution of .HTA files by mshta.exe can be debugged with the Microsoft Script Editor, MSE7.exe.

References:

  1. mshta.exe Windows process - What is it?
    file.net
  2. mshta.exe - mshta - Process Information
    Uniblue™ ProcessLibrary™
  3. File Extension .HTA Details
    FILExt - The File Extension Source
  4. .HTA File Extension
    FileInfo.net
  5. Introduction to HTML Applications (HTAs) - Windows Internet Explorer
    Microsoft Developer Network

[/os/windows/processes] permanent link

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