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Tue, Apr 28, 2009 8:01 pm

Double Underline in HTML

I wanted to put a double underline under "Windows XP Professional Setup" on a webpage. I needed the text in that section of the page to be white on a blue background. To achieve that effect, I used <u style="border-bottom: solid 1px;">Windows XP Professional Setup<u>. The HTML code is shown below.
<div style="background-color: blue; color: white; width: 640px; padding: 2px;">
<pre>
<u style="border-bottom: solid 1px;">Windows XP Professional Setup</u>


</pre></div>

The code would produce the following:

Windows XP Professional Setup


References:

  1. How do you make a double underline???
    Date: December 11, 2006
    Forums - CreateBlog

[/network/web/html] permanent link

Sun, Apr 26, 2009 4:19 pm

NFS on Solaris

Solaris 9 and later comes with an NFS server. To use it, edit the /etc/dfs/dfstab file. Place a share command in it using the syntax share [-F FSType] [-o specific_options] [-d description] [pathname].

The following shows an entry made to that file. Folders are shared via NFS using the share command. The options used are explained below:

-F nfsSpecify the filesystem type for sharing to be NFS.
-o rw=PC1Allow read and write access from one one client system named PC1
-d "share"Use share as the description for the share
#       Place share(1M) commands here for automatic execution
#       on entering init state 3.
#
#       Issue the command 'svcadm enable network/nfs/server' to
#       run the NFS daemon processes and the share commands, after adding
#       the very first entry to this file.
#
#       share [-F fstype] [ -o options] [-d "<text>"] <pathname> [resource]
#       .e.g,
#       share  -F nfs  -o rw=engineering  -d "home dirs"  /export/home2

share -F nfs -o rw=PC1 -d "share" /export/home/jsmith/Documents/share

The options that can be specified with -o are as follows:

     -o specific_options

         The specific_options are used to control access  of  the
         shared resource. (See share_nfs(1M) for the NFS specific
         options.) They may be any of the following:

         rw

             pathname is shared read/write to all  clients.  This
             is also the default behavior.

         rw=client[:client]...

             pathname is shared read/write  only  to  the  listed
             clients. No other systems can access pathname.

         ro

             pathname is shared read-only to all clients.

Note: in the example above I used /export/home/jsmith/Documents/share as the directory to be shared. I had to use /export/home/jsmith/Documents/share rather than /home/Documents/jsmith/shared, because under Solaris the /home directory is a special directory. For sharing something under it with NFS, you need to use /export/home.

When I tried sharing the directory with the shareall command when I used /home/jsmith/Documents/share, I received an error message.

# shareall -F nfs
share_nfs: /home/jim/Documents/share: Operation not applicable

Once I used /export/home/jsmith/Documents/share in /etc/dfs/dfstab, I did not receive any error messages when running shareall.

# shareall -F nfs
#

Once the dfstab file has been edited, start the NFS server with svcadm enable network/nfs/server.

You can check the state of the NFS server with the svc command:

$ svcs network/nfs/server
STATE          STIME    FMRI
disabled       14:19:50 svc:/network/nfs/server:default

You can use the -v option with the svcadm to get more verbose information. You can use the -r option to enable other services on which it depends. Svcadm then enables each service instance and recursively enables its dependencies. If the -s option is specified, svcadm enables each service instance and then waits for each service instance to enter the online or degraded state. svcadm will return early if it determines that the service cannot reach these states without administrator intervention.

# svcadm -v enable -r network/nfs/server
svc:/network/nfs/server:default enabled.
svc:/milestone/network enabled.
svc:/network/loopback enabled.
svc:/network/physical enabled.
svc:/network/nfs/nlockmgr enabled.
svc:/network/rpc/bind enabled.
svc:/system/filesystem/minimal enabled.
svc:/system/filesystem/usr enabled.
svc:/system/boot-archive enabled.
svc:/system/filesystem/root enabled.
svc:/system/device/local enabled.
svc:/system/identity:node enabled.
svc:/system/sysidtool:net enabled.
svc:/milestone/single-user:default enabled.
svc:/milestone/devices enabled.
svc:/system/device/fc-fabric enabled.
svc:/system/sysevent enabled.
svc:/system/manifest-import enabled.
svc:/system/filesystem/local:default enabled.
svc:/milestone/single-user enabled.
svc:/system/filesystem/minimal:default enabled.
svc:/system/identity:domain enabled.
svc:/network/nfs/status enabled.
svc:/system/filesystem/local enabled.
# svcadm enable -s /network/nfs/server

If the service is still marked as disabled, you can use the -d option, which lists the services or service instances upon which the given service instances depend.

# svcs /network/nfs/server
STATE          STIME    FMRI
disabled       14:55:55 svc:/network/nfs/server:default
# svcs -d /network/nfs/server
STATE          STIME    FMRI
disabled       Jul_28   svc:/network/rpc/keyserv:default
disabled       Jul_28   svc:/network/nfs/mapid:default
online         Jul_28   svc:/milestone/network:default
online         Jul_28   svc:/system/filesystem/local:default
online         Jul_28   svc:/network/rpc/bind:default
online         Jul_28   svc:/network/nfs/nlockmgr:default
online         Jul_28   svc:/network/rpc/gss:default

When I tried starting the NFS server software on a Solaris 10 system, I didn't see error messages when I ran svdadm enable -s /network/nfs/server, but when I would check it afterwards with svcs /network/nfs/server, the service was listed as disabled. So I tried enabling the keyserv and mapid services, which were listed as disabled.

# svcs keyserv
STATE          STIME    FMRI
disabled       Jul_28   svc:/network/rpc/keyserv:default
# svcadm enable keyserv
# svcs keyserv
STATE          STIME    FMRI
maintenance    15:43:56 svc:/network/rpc/keyserv:default
# svcadm enable mapid
# svcs mapid
STATE          STIME    FMRI
online         15:44:58 svc:/network/nfs/mapid:default
# svcs /network/nfs/server
STATE          STIME    FMRI
disabled       14:55:55 svc:/network/nfs/server:default
# svcadm enable -s /network/nfs/server
svcadm: Instance "svc:/network/nfs/server:default" has been disabled by another 
entity.
# svcs -x  svc:/network/nfs/server
svc:/network/nfs/server:default (NFS server)
 State: disabled since Sun Apr 26 15:45:46 2009
Reason: Disabled by an administrator.
   See: http://sun.com/msg/SMF-8000-05
   See: nfsd(1M)
   See: /var/svc/log/network-nfs-server:default.log
Impact: This service is not running.

I finally realized that the NFS service won't start if there is no valid directory share. I had used /home/jsmith/Documents/share in /etc/dfs/dfstab instead of /export/home/jsmith/Documents/share. Once I corrected that problem, I was able to enable the /network/nfs/server service.

# svcs /network/nfs/server
STATE          STIME    FMRI
online         16:15:32 svc:/network/nfs/server:default
# svcadm enable -s /network/nfs/server
# svcs /network/nfs/server
STATE          STIME    FMRI
online         16:15:32 svc:/network/nfs/server:default

I had previously run svcadm enable -r /network/nfs/server to recursively enable any other services that the NFS service depended upon. Since the keyserv and mapid services had been listed as disabled after I ran that command, but I had subsequenty enabled them when I incorrectly concluded that the fact that they were disabled was keeping the NFS server service from running, I disabled them again.

# svcadm disable keyserv
# svcadm disable mapid
# svcadm restart /network/nfs/server
# svcs /network/nfs/server
STATE          STIME    FMRI
online         16:41:38 svc:/network/nfs/server:default

I then checked to verify the system was listening on the default port for NFS, port 2049.

# netstat -an | grep 2049
      *.2049                              Idle
      *.2049                              Idle
      *.2049                                                        Idle
      *.2049               *.*                0      0 49152      0 LISTEN
      *.2049               *.*                0      0 49152      0 LISTEN
      *.2049                            *.*                             0      0 49152      0 LISTEN
# netstat -a | grep nfs
      *.nfsd                              Idle
      *.nfsd                              Idle
      *.nfsd                                                        Idle

References:

  1. Sharing directories with NFS in Solaris 10
    Solaris Administration Secrets and Security
  2. Setting up an NFS Server on Solaris
    Date: December 21, 2003
    Network Administrator Tools
  3. Solaris 10: enable NFS server
    By: qmchenry
    Date: May 20, 2005
    Tech-Recipes - Your cookbook of tech tutorials
  4. [osol-help] unable to bring up nfs server on solaris 10
    Date: May 15, 2007
    The opensolaris-help Archives
  5. NFS: Operation not applicable
    Date: August 12, 2006
    Sun Forums
  6. svcadm fails to enable nfs/server
    Date: August 12, 2008
    SUN Solaris - The UNIX and Linux Forums

[/os/unix/solaris] permanent link

Fri, Apr 17, 2009 8:42 pm

Default Virtualhost in Apache

The first virtualhost section in Apache's httpd.conf file will be used as the default for any domain that doesn't have its own virtualhost section in the configuration file, if you use *:80 in the virtualhost section. E.g., suppose the very first virtualhost listed in httpd.conf is dummy-host.example.com as shown below.
<VirtualHost *:80>
    ServerAdmin webmaster@dummy-host.example.com
    DocumentRoot /www/docs/dummy-host.example.com
    ServerName dummy-host.example.com
    ErrorLog logs/dummy-host.example.com-error_log
    CustomLog logs/dummy-host.example.com-access_log common
</VirtualHost>

If the IP address for another.example.com, points to the same webserver, but there is no virtualhost section for another.example.com, then anyone who uses http://another.example.com will see whatever homepage was set up for dummy-host.example.com.

References:

  1. VirtualHost Examples
    Apache HTTP Server Version 2.0
    The Apache HTTP Server Project

[/network/web/server/apache] permanent link

Thu, Apr 16, 2009 4:41 pm

Inserting Author and Last Edit Date in a Visio Drawing

In Visio 2003, to insert a field, such as the date a Visio drawing was last edited or the name of the document's creator, click on the text tool icon, i.e. the "A" in the toolbar at the top of the Visio window, which selects the Text Tool.

Visio - select text tool

Hold the mouse button down and drag the mouse while holding the button down to create a text box. To insert a field into the text box, rather than typing text, click on Insert, then select Field. You can click on Date/Time to see options for inserting dates and times into the document. If you selected the Last Edit Date/Time, you could insert the date and/or time the document was last edited. If you later edited the drawing again, that value would be updated automatically in the area where you inserted it in the drawing.

Visio - date/time field

If you placed author and company information in the drawings "properties" by clicking on File then Properties, you could insert that information in the document as well.

Visio - document properties

Instead of selecting Date/Time when choosing which information to insert in the document, you would then select Document Info for the field.

Visio - date/time field

References:

  1. Creating text fields to display information in Visio
    Microsoft Office Online

[/os/windows/office/visio] permanent link

Tue, Apr 14, 2009 9:39 pm

Inserting a Newline Character Using Vi

To insert a newline character, i.e. to create a new line in a file using Vi on a Unix system, you can use ^M (you have to actually type Ctrl-V (i.e. the Ctrl and V keys hit simultaneously) followed by Enter to get the ^M to appear. For example, suppose that instead of commas separating elements in a list you wish to put each element on a new line.

Original lines

Gold, Silver, Bronze

Desired lines

Gold Silver Bronze

You can use the following command in Vi to replace all commas with the newline character starting from the first line in the file to the last (represented by $):

1,$ s/,/^M/g

As noted above, you need to hit Ctrl-V Enter to put the ^M in the command.

References:

  1. How to represent a new line character in a regex in VI?
    By: mbrooks
    Date: December 30, 2006
    Tek-Tips

[/software/editors/vi] permanent link

Tue, Apr 14, 2009 7:57 am

Character Encoding of Webpages

I've been validating the HTML code on the webpages I create for a few weeks using the W3C Markup Validation Service. For all of my webpages, I've been getting the warning below when I validate them:

No Character encoding declared at document level

No character encoding information was found within the document, either in an HTML meta element or an XML declaration. It is often recommended to declare the character encoding in the document itself, especially if there is a chance that the document will be read from or saved to disk, CD, etc.

The W3C site provides information on character sets and encoding of webpages at Tutorial: Character sets & encodings in XHTML, HTML and CSS.

There are, of course, many other useful references on the matter on the web. The Wikipedia article, Character encodings in HTML explains how browsers determine the character encoding of a webpage. Wikipedia provides information on issues related to the internationalization and localization, often abbreviated as i18n (where 18 stands for the number of letters between the i and the n in internationalization, a usage coined at DEC in the 1970s or 80s) and L10n respectively. The capital L in L10n helps to distinguish it from the lowercase i in i18n.

UTF-8: The Securet of Character Encoding has a good explanation of why it is advisable to specify the character encoding for your HTML documents and why using UTF-8 is recommended.

The webserver is providing information on the encoding of the webpages, i.e. it is sending Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 in the HTTP headers it sends to browsers, but I haven't been including a meta tag in the pages specifying the encoding, i.e. I haven't been using <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">. I decided to add that immediately after the <head> tag in the template I use for my webpages.

[/network/web/html] permanent link

Sun, Apr 12, 2009 11:06 pm

hMailServer - Free Email Server for Microsoft Windows

If you want to set up a Microsoft Windows system as an email server, there is a free, full-featured email server program available called hMailServer. It supports IMAP, POP3, and SMTP.

[ More Info ]

[/network/email] permanent link

Sun, Apr 12, 2009 7:22 pm

How to Stop Vim from AutoIndenting in Files

I use Vim for editing files on Windows systems. I edit HTML files with it, but find its habit of automatically indenting lines in those files based on the tags used annoying rather than helpful. Fortunately, that behavior can be turned off. To so so, edit the _vimrc file, which is in the directory where you installed Vim, e.g. C:\Program Files\Vim. For HTML files, i.e. any file with an extension of .htm or .html, you can add the following two lines to stop the autoindentation. Close Vim, add the lines, then reopen Vim and you should no longer have the autoindenation in those files.

autocmd BufEnter *.html setlocal indentexpr=
autocmd BufEnter *.htm setlocal indentexpr=

You can enter similar lines to stop autoindentation in other files.

References:

  1. How to stop auto indenting
    Vim Tips Wiki

[/software/editors/vi] permanent link

Sun, Apr 12, 2009 6:29 pm

Configuring a NetScreen Firewall for an Internal SMTP Server

The steps here can be taken to configure a NetScreen firewall, such as the NetScreen-5GT or NetScreen-5XP firewalls, to allow email to be sent from or to an email server sitting behind the firewall, i.e. on the trusted side of the firewall, when the firewall is performing NAT.

[/security/firewalls/netscreen] permanent link

Sat, Apr 11, 2009 12:28 pm

Toshiba M35X Laptop Discharges on AC Power

I've been experiencing more power problems with my Toshiba M35X-S109 laptop. Even when it is powered by A/C, i.e. I have the power cabled attached to it, the battery will sometimes discharge and the system will power itself off. If I check the power status (click on Start, Control Panel, Performance and Maintenance, Toshiba Power Management), I see that the system is on A/C power, yet the battery is still discharging.

Toshiba Power Management on A/C battery discharging

Eventually, the Toshiba Power Management Utility will show that the battery has fully discharged. Then within a minute or two, the system will power itself off.

Toshiba Power Management on A/C battery zero charge

I had configured the Toshiba Power Management Utility to put the system in hibernate mode when the power got down to a a very low percentage, but it has never done so; the system just powers off. And, even though I had it configured to warn me when the battery power got down to 10%, I'm never warned either. The system just abrubtly powers itself off.

I had found other people reporting similar problems with this laptop when I searched for information on the problem previously - see Toshiba M35X Laptop Powers Off Randomly. The system had been showing 100% power yesterday evening and I hadn't noticed the charge state decreasing - I use Laptop Battery Power Monitor to constantly monitor the charge state of the battery - and I hadn't saved a lot of notes I had made regarding a problem I was working on. I know better than to use Windows Notepad, since it doesn't do any automatic file saving, but I had pasted output from a remote system and URLs related to the problem I was working on at the time into Notes. So I utterred a few curses when the laptop powered itself off, since all those notes were lost.

When the system is not charging, I see the two left-most LED's lit green on the front of the laptop. The left-most one indicates the laptop has A/C power. The middle one is lit green indicating the system is powered on. When the system is charging, the right-most one is lit amber when the battery is charging. And the Laptop Battery Power Monitor will have an orange arrow pointing out of it to notify me that the laptop battery is charging.

Laptop Battery Power Monitor - battery charging

When the system powers itself off, I've found that if I power it back on immediately, it will show a zero percent charge and power itself back off within a couple of minutes. If I do nothing, but leave the system off for awhile, when I turn it back on, it may show the battery as fully charged or show it is in a charging state, depending on how long I've left it powered off. Sometimes, though, it shows the battery in a partially charged state and immediately starts discharging again.

Today, I found that if I tipped the laptop backwords, I could get the state to go from discharging to charging. If I put it back down, sometimes it would show that it was charging, other times it would be discharging the battery. I also found that if I pulled the A/C power plug from the back of the laptop and plugged it back in, sometimes I could get it to go to the charging state. Sometimes the Laptop Battery Monitor utility would show briefly that the battery was being charged, but would almost immediately switch to showing it was discharging. If I removed the power plug and put it back in multiple times, I could sometimes get it to stay in the charging state. At the moment it's charging again.

I did some more online searching with Google again today to see what others were saying about such problems with Toshiba laptops. I found others reporting similar problems with other Toshiba laptops. Many, like myself, stated they are unlikely to consider a Toshiba laptop for future laptop purchases. I found a lot of very informative postings on the problem by various people at Toshiba Satellite P25-s520 AC Power Problem. Some people had reported resolving the problem by simply opening the laptop and blowing out dust. Others fixed their problem by replacing the nib on the power adapter. Others replaced or adjusted the placement of components inside the laptop. For anyone experiencing similar problems, I would recommend reading the postings there. If those webpages ever disappear or the site is unavailable, the Internet Archive, aka the Wayback Machine, has them archived at Toshiba Satellite Ps5-s520 AC Power Problem. One of the posters even posted a link on how to disassemble a Toshiba Satellite P25 notebook, which you might want to try to get rid of dust inside the laptop or if you want to check the power connection to the motherboard. The link is Disassembling Toshiba Satellite P25 notebook. It may be helpful for those who need to disassemble other models of Toshiba Satellite laptops as well.

One poster even said he was able to rectify the problem by wrapping aluminum foil around the nib of the power plug that goes into the back of the laptop. I tried that; it didn't help and, when the foil comes off and remains inside the connector on the back of the laptop, it may be difficult to get all of it back out, so, personally, I can't recommend that solution, though, if you are desparate, you can try it.

[/pc/hardware/toshiba] permanent link

Wed, Apr 08, 2009 10:48 pm

Swinog DNSRBL

I added the Swinog DNSRBL to the list of DNS Blacklists (DNSBLs) that I have sendmail check on my email server. To do so, I added FEATURE(`dnsbl',`dnsrbl.swinog.ch',`550 Spam Block: mail from $&{client_addr} refused - see http://antispam.imp.ch/spamikaze/remove.php')dnl to /etc/mail/sendmail.mc. I now have the following DNSBLs listed in that file:
FEATURE(`blacklist_recipients')dnl
FEATURE(`dnsbl', `bl.csma.biz', `550 Spam Block: mail from $&{client_addr} refused - See http://bl.csma.biz/')dnl
FEATURE(`dnsbl', `sbl.spamhaus.org', `550 Spam Block: mail from $&{client_addr} refused - See http://www.spamhaus.org/sbl/')dnl
FEATURE(`dnsbl', `psbl.surriel.com', `550 Spam Block: mail from $&{client_addr} refused - see http://psbl.surriel.com/')dnl
FEATURE(`dnsbl',`dnsbl.sorbs.net',`550 Spam Block: mail from $&{client_addr} refused - see http://dnsbl.sorbs.net/')dnl
FEATURE(`dnsbl',`dnsrbl.swinog.ch',`550 Spam Block: mail from $&{client_addr} refused - see http://antispam.imp.ch/spamikaze/remove.php')dnl

After adding the entry for the Swinog RBL, I generated a sendmail.cf file from sendmail.mc and restarted sendmail.

# m4 /etc/mail/sendmail.mc > /etc/mail/sendmail.cf
# /etc/init.d/sendmail restart

I checked /var/log/maillog just moments after adding that blacklist and found it had blocked spam:

# grep 'antispam.imp.ch' /var/log/maillog
Apr  8 21:16:57 frostdragon sendmail[15676]: n391GuGi015676: ruleset=check_rcpt,
 arg1=<broderbundxxxxxx@moonpoint.com>, relay=65-75-229-245.dsl.ctcn.net [65.75.
229.245] (may be forged), reject=550 5.7.1 <broderbundxxxxxx@moonpoint.com>... S
pam Block:mail from 65.75.229.245 refused - see http://antispam.imp.ch/spamikaze
/remove.php

The Swinog DNSBL blocked email to an email address that I used on December 8, 2004 when I registered software with Brøderbund Software. I never used the email for any other purpose. Usually, when I'm providing an email address to any company, I don't use my primary email address, but instead create an alias for that address that points to my primary email address. So, if I start getting a lot of spam addressed to the alias, I can just invalidate the alias. And, since the aliases I create are not ones a spammer would use if the spammer was employing a name dictionary attack, i.e. guessing likekly names, I know that the company has provided the email address I gave them to a spammer. So I know the spammer got the address above, which I've changed for any spam spiders that may crawl across this page, from Brøderbund Software or one of the companies that subsequently owned Brøderbund Software.

The Wikipedia article on the company at Brøderbund lists the following history of corporate ownership for Brøderbund.

Brøderbund was purchased by The Learning Company in 1998 for about USD$420 million in stock. Ironically, Brøderbund had initially attempted to purchase the original The Learning Company in 1995, but was outbid by Softkey, who purchased The Learning Company for $606 million in cash and then adopted its name. In a move to rationalize costs, The Learning Company promptly terminated 500 employees at Brøderbund the same year, representing 42% of the company's workforce. Then in 1999 the combined company was bought by Mattel for $3.6 billion. Mattel reeled from the financial impact of this transaction, and Jill Barad, the CEO, ended up being forced out in a climate of investor outrage. Mattel then gave away The Learning Company in September 2000 to Gores Technology Group, a private acquisitions firm, for a share of whatever Gores could obtain by selling the company. In 2001, Gores sold The Learning Company's entertainment holdings to Ubisoft, and most of the other holdings, including the Brøderbund name, to Irish company Riverdeep. Currently, all of Brøderbund's games, such as the Myst series, are published by Ubisoft.

I suspect that it wasn't just my email address that was sold to spammers. Probably Brøderbund's entire mailing list was sold by either Brøderbund or one of the companies that acquired it, though, of course there is a possibility it could just have been an employee of one of the companies trying to make some easy cash or one who was losing a job as his or her company was acquired by another company, who could have been looking to compensate for lost wages.

The address is still being used by spammers over four years later, even though the address has probably not been valid for over a year. Unfortunately, I don't remember when I first started getting spam addressed to that email address.

After having a hernia operation recently, I noticed I've been getting spam on a fairly regular basis suggesting I might want to use the legal services mentioned in the spam if I wanted to sue for any problems related to the patch used in the surgery. I don't remember seeing any of this type of message previously, though it's possible that I might have received such messages, but they never registered in my consciousness then as I deleted spam. But I'm wondering now if someone at the office of the doctor who performed the surgery sold my email address. I believe I did put my primary email address on a form I filled out at the doctor's office. If I had used an alias, I would know for certain, if that was the case.

[/network/email/spam/blocklists] permanent link

Tue, Apr 07, 2009 10:31 pm

NetScreen Snoop Command

Juniper NetScreen firewalls have a snoop command that functions similarly to the command of the same name on a Solaris system or the tcpdump utility for Unix/Linux systems or the Windows equivalent, WinDump. I.e., it provides some packet sniffing capabilities.

The snoop commands provide functionality one might expect from a sniffer, but you can also use debug commands to see how the firewall is applying policies to the traffic it sees.

[ More Info ]

[/security/firewalls/netscreen] permanent link

Tue, Apr 07, 2009 8:54 pm

Configuring a Linksys BEFSR41 Router for Animal Crossing

The Wii game Animal Crossing: City Folk, which was released on November 16, 2008 in the U.S. allows one to visit friends who also have Wii's on which they are running the game. But in order for someone to visit you, you must have your router/firewall configured so that the appropriate firewall ports are open.

[ More Info ]

[/gaming/wii] permanent link

Sun, Apr 05, 2009 9:00 pm

Configuring a Netscreen Firewall for Syslog Server Support

To configure a Juniper NetScreen firewall to send messages to a syslog server take these steps.

[/security/firewalls/netscreen] permanent link

Sun, Apr 05, 2009 8:18 pm

Free File Upload Sites for Virus Scanning

There are a number of sites where one can upload a file to have it scanned by multiple antivirus programs, e.g. VirusTotal, VirSCAN, and Jotti's Malware Scan site.

[ More Info ]

[/security/antivirus] permanent link

Sat, Apr 04, 2009 3:32 pm

Socat and Ncat

I needed to determine whether User Datagram Protocol (UDP) datagrams were being transmitted through a firewall on specific ports. I had a Windows system behind the firewall and a Linux system on the outside of the firewall. I intended to use Ncat on both systems. I installed Nmap on the Windows system, since it provides the Ncat utility. But when I tried to install Ncat on the Linux system, I encountered problems, so I installed socat, instead, since it provides similar capabilities.

Since I needed to test whether UDP datagrams would reach the Windows system on port 27900, I issued the command ncat -u 27900 -l to have ncat listen (the "-l" argument) on UDP port 27900 (the -u 27900 argument). I then issued the command socat - udp-sendto:192.168.0.3:27900 on the Linux system. The - udp-sendto:192.168.0.3 allowed me to send data from the system socat was running on to the the destination address 192.168.0.3. I was then able to type text, e.g. the words "a test" on the Linux system. I saw them appear on the Windows system indicating the firewall rule was functioning as needed.

Linux Sending System

$ socat - udp-sendto:192.168.2.3:27900
a test

Windows Listening System

C:\Program Files\Network\Nmap>ncat -u 27900 -l
a test

I then terminated the socat program on the Linux system with Ctrl-D and the ncat program on the Windows system with Ctrl-C.

References:

  1. Nmap
  2. socat
    dest-unreach.org
  3. socat - Multipurpose relay (SOcket CAT)
    Linux Man Pages Manual Documentation for Linux / Solaris / UNIX / BSD

[/network/tools/scanning/socat] permanent link

Sat, Apr 04, 2009 3:01 pm

Ncat and Glibc

I wanted to install Ncat on a CentOS Linux system to test firewall rules. I intended to run Ncat on a Windows system behind the firewall to listen for UDP connections while using Ncat on the Linux system outside the firewall to send data to the Windows system through the firewall. I downloaded the Windows version of Nmap, which also provides the command line Ncat tool. I had no problems installing and running it on the Windows system. However, when I downloaded the Linux RPM for Ncat from the Nmap site and tried to install it, I encountered problems.
# rpm --install ncat-4.85BETA7-1.x86_64.rpm
error: Failed dependencies:
        libc.so.6(GLIBC_2.7)(64bit) is needed by ncat-4.85BETA7-1.x86_64

Yet, when I checked the system for the presence of libc.so.6, I found it was present.

# locate libc.so
/lib/libc.so.6
/lib/i686/nosegneg/libc.so.6
/lib64/libc.so.6
/usr/lib/libc.so
/usr/lib/i386-redhat-linux4E/lib/libc.so
/usr/lib/x86_64-redhat-linux4E/lib64/libc.so
/usr/lib64/libc.so

I checked to see what package provided the file.

# rpm -qf /lib/libc.so.6
glibc-2.5-24
# rpm -qf /lib64/libc.so.6
glibc-2.5-24

When I checked the package, there appeared to be two glibc-2.5-24 packages present, since when I ran the command rpm -qi glibc-2.5-24, I saw the package listed twice, but with different sizes

# rpm -qi glibc-2.5-24
Name        : glibc                        Relocations: (not relocatable)
Version     : 2.5                               Vendor: CentOS
Release     : 24                            Build Date: Fri 23 May 2008 10:40:42 PM EDT
Install Date: Tue 29 Jul 2008 10:03:15 AM EDT      Build Host: builder15.centos.org
Group       : System Environment/Libraries   Source RPM: glibc-2.5-24.src.rpm
Size        : 11590290                         License: LGPL
Signature   : DSA/SHA1, Sun 15 Jun 2008 09:51:20 AM EDT, Key ID a8a447dce8562897
Summary     : The GNU libc libraries.
Description :
The glibc package contains standard libraries which are used by
multiple programs on the system. In order to save disk space and
memory, as well as to make upgrading easier, common system code is
kept in one place and shared between programs. This particular package
contains the most important sets of shared libraries: the standard C
library and the standard math library. Without these two libraries, a
Linux system will not function.
Name        : glibc                        Relocations: (not relocatable)
Version     : 2.5                               Vendor: CentOS
Release     : 24                            Build Date: Fri 23 May 2008 11:12:28 PM EDT
Install Date: Tue 29 Jul 2008 10:03:26 AM EDT      Build Host: builder15.centos.org
Group       : System Environment/Libraries   Source RPM: glibc-2.5-24.src.rpm
Size        : 12579066                         License: LGPL
Signature   : DSA/SHA1, Sun 15 Jun 2008 09:51:20 AM EDT, Key ID a8a447dce8562897
Summary     : The GNU libc libraries.
Description :
The glibc package contains standard libraries which are used by
multiple programs on the system. In order to save disk space and
memory, as well as to make upgrading easier, common system code is
kept in one place and shared between programs. This particular package
contains the most important sets of shared libraries: the standard C
library and the standard math library. Without these two libraries, a
Linux system will not function.

I tried updating the package.

# yum upgrade glibc
Loading "priorities" plugin
Loading "fastestmirror" plugin
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * rpmforge: fr2.rpmfind.net
 * base: mirror.anl.gov
 * updates: ftp.lug.udel.edu
 * addons: centos.aol.com
 * extras: ftp.lug.udel.edu
338 packages excluded due to repository priority protections
Setting up Upgrade Process
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package glibc.i686 0:2.5-34 set to be updated
--> Processing Dependency: glibc-common = 2.5-34 for package: glibc
--> Processing Dependency: glibc = 2.5-24 for package: glibc-devel
--> Processing Dependency: glibc = 2.5-24 for package: glibc-devel
--> Processing Dependency: glibc = 2.5-24 for package: glibc-headers
---> Package glibc.x86_64 0:2.5-34 set to be updated
--> Running transaction check
---> Package glibc-headers.x86_64 0:2.5-34 set to be updated
---> Package glibc-common.x86_64 0:2.5-34 set to be updated
---> Package glibc-devel.x86_64 0:2.5-34 set to be updated
--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

=============================================================================
 Package                 Arch       Version          Repository        Size
=============================================================================
Updating:
 glibc                   x86_64     2.5-34           base              4.7 M
 glibc                   i686       2.5-34           base              5.2 M
 glibc-common            x86_64     2.5-34           base               16 M
Updating for dependencies:
 glibc-devel             x86_64     2.5-34           base              2.4 M
 glibc-headers           x86_64     2.5-34           base              589 k

Transaction Summary
=============================================================================
Install      0 Package(s)
Update       5 Package(s)
Remove       0 Package(s)

Total download size: 29 M
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Downloading Packages:
(1/5): glibc-devel-2.5-34 100% |=========================| 2.4 MB    00:04
(2/5): glibc-common-2.5-3 100% |=========================|  16 MB    00:32
(3/5): glibc-headers-2.5- 100% |=========================| 589 kB    00:01
(4/5): glibc-2.5-34.i686. 100% |=========================| 5.2 MB    00:09
(5/5): glibc-2.5-34.x86_6 100% |=========================| 4.7 MB    00:08
Running rpm_check_debug
ERROR with rpm_check_debug vs depsolve:
Package glibc-devel needs glibc = 2.5-24, this is not available.
Package glibc-devel needs glibc = 2.5-24, this is not available.
Package glibc-devel needs glibc-headers = 2.5-24, this is not available.
Package glibc-devel needs glibc-headers = 2.5-24, this is not available.
Complete!

When I ran rpm -qi glib afterwards, I saw version 2.5-24 still listed. I tried yum update glibc as well, though I didn't expect the results to be different; they weren't. I then checked for glibc files in the yum cache. There appeared to be both 32-bit and 64-bit versions present.

# ls /var/cache/yum/base/packages/glibc*
/var/cache/yum/base/packages/glibc-2.5-24.i686.rpm
/var/cache/yum/base/packages/glibc-2.5-24.x86_64.rpm
/var/cache/yum/base/packages/glibc-2.5-34.i686.rpm
/var/cache/yum/base/packages/glibc-2.5-34.x86_64.rpm
/var/cache/yum/base/packages/glibc-common-2.5-24.x86_64.rpm
/var/cache/yum/base/packages/glibc-common-2.5-34.x86_64.rpm
/var/cache/yum/base/packages/glibc-devel-2.5-24.i386.rpm
/var/cache/yum/base/packages/glibc-devel-2.5-24.x86_64.rpm
/var/cache/yum/base/packages/glibc-devel-2.5-34.x86_64.rpm
/var/cache/yum/base/packages/glibc-headers-2.5-24.x86_64.rpm
/var/cache/yum/base/packages/glibc-headers-2.5-34.x86_64.rpm

I removed all of them from the yum cache with rm -f /var/cache/yum/base/packages/glibc*. When I tried yum update glibc again, however, the results were the same.

I checked the arch of the installed glibc packages.

# rpm -qa --qf  '%{name}-%{version}-%{release}.%{arch}\n'|grep glibc
glibc-devel-2.5-24.x86_64
compat-glibc-headers-2.3.4-2.26.x86_64
compat-glibc-2.3.4-2.26.i386
glibc-devel-2.5-24.i386
compat-glibc-2.3.4-2.26.x86_64
glibc-2.5-24.x86_64
glibc-2.5-24.i686
glibc-common-2.5-24.x86_64
glibc-headers-2.5-24.x86_64

I did have 32-bit and 64-bit versions installed. I decided to try listing all of the glibc packages for the yum update command. That worked much better.

# yum update glibc glibc-common glibc-devel glibc-headers
Loading "priorities" plugin
Loading "fastestmirror" plugin
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * rpmforge: fr2.rpmfind.net
 * base: mirrors.rit.edu
 * updates: ftp.lug.udel.edu
 * addons: ftp.lug.udel.edu
 * extras: ftp.lug.udel.edu
338 packages excluded due to repository priority protections
Setting up Update Process
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package glibc.x86_64 0:2.5-34 set to be updated
---> Package glibc-headers.x86_64 0:2.5-34 set to be updated
---> Package glibc-devel.i386 0:2.5-34 set to be updated
---> Package glibc-common.x86_64 0:2.5-34 set to be updated
---> Package glibc-devel.x86_64 0:2.5-34 set to be updated
---> Package glibc.i686 0:2.5-34 set to be updated
--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

=============================================================================
 Package                 Arch       Version          Repository        Size
=============================================================================
Updating:
 glibc                   x86_64     2.5-34           base              4.7 M
 glibc                   i686       2.5-34           base              5.2 M
 glibc-common            x86_64     2.5-34           base               16 M
 glibc-devel             i386       2.5-34           base              2.0 M
 glibc-devel             x86_64     2.5-34           base              2.4 M
 glibc-headers           x86_64     2.5-34           base              589 k

Transaction Summary
=============================================================================
Install      0 Package(s)
Update       6 Package(s)
Remove       0 Package(s)

Total download size: 31 M
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Downloading Packages:
(1/1): glibc-devel-2.5-34 100% |=========================| 2.0 MB    00:03
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Finished Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
  Updating  : glibc-common                 ####################### [ 1/12]
  Updating  : glibc                        ####################### [ 2/12]
  Updating  : glibc                        ####################### [ 3/12]
warning: /etc/ld.so.conf created as /etc/ld.so.conf.rpmnew
warning: /etc/localtime created as /etc/localtime.rpmnew
warning: /etc/nsswitch.conf created as /etc/nsswitch.conf.rpmnew
  Updating  : glibc-headers                ####################### [ 4/12]
  Updating  : glibc-devel                  ####################### [ 5/12]
  Updating  : glibc-devel                  ####################### [ 6/12]
  Cleanup   : glibc                        ####################### [ 7/12]
  Cleanup   : glibc-headers                ####################### [ 8/12]
  Cleanup   : glibc-devel                  ####################### [ 9/12]
  Cleanup   : glibc-common                 ####################### [10/12]
  Cleanup   : glibc-devel                  ####################### [11/12]
  Cleanup   : glibc                        ####################### [12/12]

Updated: glibc.x86_64 0:2.5-34 glibc.i686 0:2.5-34 glibc-common.x86_64 0:2.5-34 glibc-devel.i386 0:2.5-34 glibc-devel.x86_64 0:2.5-34 glibc-headers.x86_64 0:2.5-34
Complete!

I then checked the architecture for the installed packages again:

# rpm -qa --qf  '%{name}-%{version}-%{release}.%{arch}\n'|grep glibc
glibc-devel-2.5-34.i386
glibc-2.5-34.x86_64
compat-glibc-headers-2.3.4-2.26.x86_64
compat-glibc-2.3.4-2.26.i386
glibc-headers-2.5-34.x86_64
glibc-common-2.5-34.x86_64
compat-glibc-2.3.4-2.26.x86_64
glibc-devel-2.5-34.x86_64
glibc-2.5-34.i686

But when I tried to install ncat again, I got the same error as before.

# rpm --install ncat-4.85BETA7-1.x86_64.rpm
error: Failed dependencies:
        libc.so.6(GLIBC_2.7)(64bit) is needed by ncat-4.85BETA7-1.x86_64

When I checked on what was required for the ncat package, I saw the following:

# rpm --requires -qp ncat-4.85BETA7-1.x86_64.rpm
libc.so.6()(64bit)
libc.so.6(GLIBC_2.2.5)(64bit)
libc.so.6(GLIBC_2.3)(64bit)
libc.so.6(GLIBC_2.3.4)(64bit)
libc.so.6(GLIBC_2.4)(64bit)
libc.so.6(GLIBC_2.7)(64bit)
rpmlib(CompressedFileNames) <= 3.0.4-1
rpmlib(PayloadFilesHavePrefix) <= 4.0-1
rtld(GNU_HASH)

I then tried installing the 32-bit version of ncat, but that attempt failed as well.

# rpm --install ncat-4.85BETA7-1.i386.rpm
error: Failed dependencies:
        libc.so.6(GLIBC_2.7) is needed by ncat-4.85BETA7-1.i386

Since I had already expended far more time than I anticipated in trying to install netcat, I decided to try an alternative program with similar capabilities, socat, instead. I didn't have any problems installing it.

# yum install socat
Loading "priorities" plugin
Loading "fastestmirror" plugin
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * rpmforge: fr2.rpmfind.net
 * base: mirrors.rit.edu
 * updates: ftp.lug.udel.edu
 * addons: centos.aol.com
 * extras: ftp.lug.udel.edu
338 packages excluded due to repository priority protections
Setting up Install Process
Parsing package install arguments
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package socat.x86_64 0:1.7.1.0-1.el5.rf set to be updated
--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

=============================================================================
 Package                 Arch       Version          Repository        Size
=============================================================================
Installing:
 socat                   x86_64     1.7.1.0-1.el5.rf  rpmforge          398 k

Transaction Summary
=============================================================================
Install      1 Package(s)
Update       0 Package(s)
Remove       0 Package(s)

Total download size: 398 k
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Downloading Packages:
(1/1): socat-1.7.1.0-1.el 100% |=========================| 398 kB    00:01
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Finished Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
  Installing: socat                        ######################### [1/1]

Installed: socat.x86_64 0:1.7.1.0-1.el5.rf
Complete!

References:

  1. Nmap
  2. Ncat
    MP: Weblog
  3. Re: [rhelv5-list] Updating RHEL5.2 causes yum to loop infinitely...
    The Mail Archive
  4. Socat
    Top 100 Nework Security Tools
  5. socat - Multipurpose relay
    dest-unreach.org

[/network/tools/scanning/nmap] permanent link

Wed, Apr 01, 2009 11:37 am

Cherry Blossoms in Animal Crossing

When a family member started playing Animal Crossing™: City Folk on her WII today, which is April 1, i.e. April Fools Day in the U.S., she found a lot of trees she had recently planted were now red. She thought the trees had died. But the red leaves on some trees that appear in the game from April 1 through April 7 represent cherry blossoms.

Each year in Japan and the U.S., as well as some other countries, there are Cherry Blossom Festivals held when the cherry blossoms appear.

Japan gave the U.S. 3,020 sakura trees, aka cherry trees, to the U.S. in 1912 as a gesture of friendship. Those trees were planted in Sakura Park in Manhattan and along the Tidal Basin in Washington, D.C. Japan sent another 3,800 trees to the U.S. in 1965. The annual National Cherry Blossom Festival in D.C. has been a popular tourist attraction in the early spring for many years.

Also on April 1, you can get a special gift, if you speak to Tortimer, the tortoise-like character. If you talk to him on other special days, you can get other items from him.

To get the following of Tortimer's goods, speak to him on the corresponding day noted below.

References:

  1. What does it mean if you have red trees ...
    Date: April 5, 2008
    GameSpot
  2. Cherry blossom
    Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  3. National Cherry Blossom Festival
    Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

[/gaming/wii] permanent link

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