After adding a virtual host section for a website to Apache's
httpd.conffile on a Linux system, I restarted Apache and tried viewing the website with a browser. Instead of seeing the home page for the site, I saw:
You don't have permission to access / on this server.
When I looked in the error log for the site, I saw the following:
[Wed Nov 05 21:27:31.179045 2014] [core:error] [pid 4471] (13)Permission denied: [client 18.104.22.168:1604] AH00035: access to /favicon.ico denied (filesystem path '/home/jdoe/public_html') because search permissions are missing on a component of the path
public_html directory and the directories
beneath it, I saw that owner, group, and world all had "execute" access,
i.e., the capability to search through the directories.
$ ls -ld public_html drwxrwxr-x. 14 jdoe jdoe 4096 Nov 5 21:04 public_html
But, checking the user's home directory I found there was no access to it except for the owner. When I changed that access to grant search access to other accounts in the same group and all accounts, then the website became visible.
$ chmod ga+x /home/jdoe $ ls -ld /home/jdoe drwx--x--x. 13 jdoe jdoe 4096 Nov 5 21:17 /home/jdoe
You can check the permissions on a directory and the directories
above it up to the root directory with just one command using
namei -m command in the form
$ namei -m /home/jdoe/public_html f: /home/jdoe/public_html drwxr-xr-x / drwxr-xr-x home drwx--x--x jdoe drwxrwxr-x public_html