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Sat, Jul 30, 2016 10:39 pm

BitDefender Free Antispam for Mail Servers (FRAMS) with Sendmail

I have been using several email blacklists on a CentOS 7 server where I use Sendmail to handle email. The blacklists, aka blocklists, I've been employing are DNS-based Blackhole Lists (DNSBLs). A DNSBL is a list of IP addresses known to be associated with the transmission of spam. The ones I've been using are listed below:

I configured Sendmail to use those blacklists by putting the following lines in /etc/mail/sendmail.mc:

FEATURE(`blacklist_recipients')dnl
FEATURE(`dnsbl', `sbl.spamhaus.org', `550 Spam Block: mail from $&{client_addr} refused - See http://www.spamhaus.org/sbl/')dnl
FEATURE(`dnsbl', `psbl.surriel.com', `550 Spam Block: mail from $&{client_addr} refused - see http://psbl.surriel.com/')dnl
FEATURE(`dnsbl',`dnsbl.sorbs.net',`550 Spam Block: mail from $&{client_addr} refused - see http://dnsbl.sorbs.net/')dnl
FEATURE(`dnsbl',`dnsrbl.swinog.ch',`550 Spam Block: mail from $&{client_addr} refused - see http://antispam.imp.ch/spamikaze/remove.php')dnl
FEATURE(`enhdnsbl', `bl.spamcop.net', `"Spam blocked see: http://spamcop.net/bl.shtml?"$&{client_addr}', `t')dnl

If you add those lines to the Sendmail configuration file, you need to regenerate /etc/mail/sendmail.cf with the command m4 /etc/mail/sendmail.mc > /etc/mail/sendmail.cf. Then restart sendmail with service sendmail restart.

Still, despite those multiple anti-spam blacklists, a lot of spam is getting through to accounts on the mail server. So I decided to install Free Antispam for Mail Servers (FRAMS) from Bitdefender, which describes the software thusly:

Bitdefender Free Antispam for Mail Servers provides essential features for increased productivity in any organization by blocking spam on Linux-based mail servers. Bitdefender's award winning antispam engines provide antiphishing, content and attachment filtering. It's extremely easy to install and administrators have an easy to use web-based interface and powerful command line management.

[ More Info ]

[/network/email/sendmail] permanent link

Fri, Jul 29, 2016 11:56 pm

Windows 7 Image Backup to Network Location

The deadline Microsoft has given for its free upgrade of Windows 7 and 8 to Windows 10 is 5:59 AM EDT Saturday July 30, 2016. When I checked with the owner of a couple of Windows 7 systems on whether she wished me to upload the systems prior to the deadline, she said "Yes." I wanted to have current backups for the systems, so I backed them up using the built-in backup program Microsoft provides with the Windows 7 operating system - see Windows 7 Image Backup to Network Location on the steps to start and configure that software. I found that there was only a few megabytes of disk space still available on the USB-attached backup device for one of the systems and I wanted to retain the earlier backups on that device, so I decided to backup the system over the network, instead. That backup was much slower than I would have liked it to have been over the 100 Mbs LAN. The steps to perform a Windows 7 backup to a network location are listed here.

[/os/windows/win7] permanent link

Fri, Jul 29, 2016 4:51 pm

Another app is currently holding the yum lock

After resolving a problem with network connectivity on a CentOS 7 Linux server, I attempted to install a package using yum, but received the message "Another app is currently holding the yum lock; waiting for it to exit..."

# yum install rdesktop
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, langpacks
Existing lock /var/run/yum.pid: another copy is running as pid 16020.
Another app is currently holding the yum lock; waiting for it to exit...
  The other application is: PackageKit
    Memory :  46 M RSS (1.4 GB VSZ)
    Started: Fri Jul 29 12:08:28 2016 - 01:14 ago
    State  : Running, pid: 16020
Another app is currently holding the yum lock; waiting for it to exit...
  The other application is: PackageKit
    Memory :  46 M RSS (1.4 GB VSZ)
    Started: Fri Jul 29 12:08:28 2016 - 01:16 ago
    State  : Sleeping, pid: 16020
Another app is currently holding the yum lock; waiting for it to exit...
  The other application is: PackageKit
    Memory :  46 M RSS (1.4 GB VSZ)
    Started: Fri Jul 29 12:08:28 2016 - 01:18 ago
    State  : Sleeping, pid: 16020
Another app is currently holding the yum lock; waiting for it to exit...
  The other application is: PackageKit
    Memory :  46 M RSS (1.4 GB VSZ)
    Started: Fri Jul 29 12:08:28 2016 - 01:20 ago
    State  : Sleeping, pid: 16020
Another app is currently holding the yum lock; waiting for it to exit...
  The other application is: PackageKit
    Memory :  46 M RSS (1.4 GB VSZ)
    Started: Fri Jul 29 12:08:28 2016 - 01:22 ago
    State  : Sleeping, pid: 16020
Another app is currently holding the yum lock; waiting for it to exit...
  The other application is: PackageKit
    Memory :  46 M RSS (1.4 GB VSZ)
    Started: Fri Jul 29 12:08:28 2016 - 01:24 ago
    State  : Sleeping, pid: 16020
^C

Exiting on user cancel.
#

I checked the process and saw the following information:

# ps aux | grep yum
root     16020 28.4  2.3 1455028 79512 ?       SN   12:08   1:16 /usr/bin/python /usr/share/PackageKit/helpers/yum/yumBackend.py refresh-cache yes
root     16354  0.0  0.0 112652   952 pts/0    S+   12:12   0:00 grep --color=auto yum
#

[ More Info ]

[/os/unix/linux/utilities/package] permanent link

Tue, Jul 26, 2016 9:57 pm

Taking a screenshot with GIMP

If you need to take an image of a window or an area on the screen on a Linux system, one of the options available is to use the GNU Image Manipulation Program, which is a free and open-source graphics editor that is also available for FreeBSD, Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows, and Solaris systems.

You can determine if the application is already installed using the which command.

$ which gimp
/bin/gimp
$

If it isn't installed, on systems that use the yum package management tool, such as CentOS, you can use the command yum install gimp from the root account to install it. On Linux distributions that use the Advanced Packaging Tool (APT) for package management, e.g., Ubuntu, you can use sudo apt-get install gimp.

To take a snapshot of a window or an area of the screen, take the following steps:

  1. Click on File.
  2. Click on Create.
  3. Select Screenshot.
  4. You can then select from the following:
    • Take a screenshot of a single window
    • Take a screenshot of the entire screen
    • Select a region to grab

[ More Info ]

[/software/graphics/gimp] permanent link

Mon, Jul 25, 2016 10:22 pm

Checking sendmail mail delivery from the command line

A user reported problems with email deliveries this morning, but when I checked the outgoing mail queue with the mailq command on the CentOS 7 server running sendmail, the queue was empty.
# mailq
/var/spool/mqueue is empty
		Total requests: 0
#

I tried sending a test message from the mail sever to an external email account with the mailx command. For the body of the message, I put some text into a file named test.txt and used the < character to provide the contents of the file as input to mailx for the body of the message. I didn't receive any error message and I didn't see any messages stuck in the mail queue when I checked it after I sent the message. But the message was not received at the destination email account.

# mailx -s "Testing" moonpoint@example.com <test.txt
# mailq
/var/spool/mqueue is empty
		Total requests: 0
#

So I then used the sendmail command, instead, to send a test message to see if it would provide me with any information that I could use for troubleshooting the problem. I created a file with the following contents to send as a test message.

# cat temp.txt
Subject: Sendmail test

This is a test.
This is only a test.

You can send a test message whose contents are contained in a text file from a command line interface using a sendmail command in the form sendmail recipient_email_address < input_file. But when I did that, I saw a "Connection refused by [127.0.0.1]" message.

[ More Info ]

[/network/email/sendmail] permanent link

Sun, Jul 24, 2016 6:33 pm

HTML attributes obsoleted by HTML5

There are quite a few HTML attributes made obsolete in HTML5, which is the current HTML standard. I've been trying to make new web pages on my site compliant with version 5 of the standard and transitioning some created using HTML 4.1 to HTML5, so I've had to modify the HTML code to use other tags or eliminate the use of attributes that have been deprecated with HTML5. Some of the elements and attributes that have been deprecated are listed below:
  1. cellpadding attribute
  2. frameborder attribute on the iframe element
  3. scrolling attribute on the iframe element
  4. name attribute
  5. valign attribute
  6. tt element

[/network/web/html/css] permanent link

Sat, Jul 23, 2016 6:09 pm

Adding Evernote add-on to Firefox on Linux

Evernote Corporation, which produces the Evernote note-taking application, unfortunately, doesn't provide an application for Linux as it does for Microsoft Windows and OS X, but you can use Evernote from within a browser, such as Firefox. To install Evernote support from within Firefox, take the steps listed here.

[/network/web/browser/firefox] permanent link

Fri, Jul 22, 2016 5:56 pm

Troubleshooting POP3S connections through a NetScreen firewall

A user reported that she was unable to receive email using her Outlook email client. When I checked her system, I found that Outlook 2016 was reporting the following error message:

Task 'nell@example.com - Receiving' reported error (0x80042108): 'Outlook cannot connect to your incoming (POP3) email server. If you continue to receive this message, contact your server administrator or Internet service provider (ISP).'

I verified that I could connect to the email server on the SMTP port, port 25, and the POP3 port, port 110, from external systems and she told me that her husband's system was able to check his email successfully. Since I knew his system was establishing a POP3 connection to the mail server to check email, but her system was establishing an encrypted POP3S connection on port 995, I checked the Linux email server to verify that it was listening for connections on port 995, since there had been a power outage at its location recently that I thought might have caused it to reboot. It was listening on that port.

$ netstat -a | grep -i pop3s
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:pop3s           0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN     
tcp6       0      0 [::]:pop3s              [::]:*                  LISTEN

So I thought the problem was likely at a NetScreen firewall between the user and the server. I logged into the firewall via Secure Shell (SSH). I verified that there were no filters currently set for the firewall and then set a filter for destination port 995 with the command set ffilter dst-port 995. I then cleared the debug buffer with clear db and started debugging on the router/firewall with debug flow basic - see NetScreen Debugging Commands for an explanation of the debugging commands. I could see that TCP packets were reaching the firewall, but the firewall was reporting "packet dropped: for self but not interested".

[ More Info ]

[/security/firewalls/netscreen] permanent link

Thu, Jul 21, 2016 10:54 pm

Restoring a disk drive from an image backup on an OS X system

I needed to restore an external USB-connected Toshiba disk drive from an image created with Disk Utility on a MacBook Pro running the OS X operating system. With the external disk drive attached, a diskutil command, diskutil list, showed the following:

$ diskutil list
/dev/disk0
   #:                       TYPE NAME                    SIZE       IDENTIFIER
   0:      GUID_partition_scheme                        *500.3 GB   disk0
   1:                        EFI EFI                     209.7 MB   disk0s1
   2:                  Apple_HFS Macintosh HD            499.4 GB   disk0s2
   3:                 Apple_Boot Recovery HD             650.0 MB   disk0s3
/dev/disk2
   #:                       TYPE NAME                    SIZE       IDENTIFIER
   0:      GUID_partition_scheme                        *13.8 MB    disk2
   1:                  Apple_HFS C_PGP2FV_B_A0           13.8 MB    disk2s1
/dev/disk3
   #:                       TYPE NAME                    SIZE       IDENTIFIER
   0:      GUID_partition_scheme                        *500.1 GB   disk3
   1:                        EFI EFI                     209.7 MB   disk3s1
   2:                  Apple_HFS TOSHIBA EXT             499.8 GB   disk3s2
   3:                 Apple_Boot Boot OS X               134.2 MB   disk3s3
$

[ More Info ]

[/os/os-x] permanent link

Wed, Jul 20, 2016 10:51 pm

OS X ncal command

If you wish to generate a calendar on an Apple system running the OS X operating system at a command line interface (CLI), e.g., within a terminal window, you can use the ncal command to display a calendar. If you enter the command with no parameters, it will display a calendar for the current month
$ ncal
    July 2016
Mo     4 11 18 25
Tu     5 12 19 26
We     6 13 20 27
Th     7 14 21 28
Fr  1  8 15 22 29
Sa  2  9 16 23 30
Su  3 10 17 24 31

If you wish to display the calendar for another month, you can specify the month on the command line by putting the month and year after the command. E.g., to display a calendar for February of 20216, the command below could be used. The command ncal february 2016 would also work.

$ ncal 2 2016
    February 2016
Mo  1  8 15 22 29
Tu  2  9 16 23
We  3 10 17 24
Th  4 11 18 25
Fr  5 12 19 26
Sa  6 13 20 27
Su  7 14 21 28

[ More Info ]

[/os/os-x] permanent link

Tue, Jul 19, 2016 11:57 am

OS X pgrep command

You can use the OS X pgrep command to list all of the process IDs for an application, such as Safari.
$ pgrep Safari
51313
78209
95848
95874

If you wish to see the newest, i.e., the most recently started one, of those processes, you can use the -n option.

$ pgrep -n Safari
95874

You can use the -l option to viewer longer information on the processes, i.e, process names as well as PIDs.

$ pgrep -l Safari
51313 Safari
78209 SafariNotificat
95848 com.apple.Safar
95874 com.apple.Safar

If you combine the -l option with the -f option, you will see even more information for the process that may be helpful when the process name is truncated.

$ pgrep -lfn Safari
95874 /System/Library/PrivateFrameworks/SafariServices.framework/Versions/A/XPCS
ervices/com.apple.SafariServices.xpc/Contents/MacOS/com.apple.SafariServices

[/os/os-x] permanent link

Mon, Jul 18, 2016 10:45 pm

Making an image of a disk drive using Disk Utility

To create an image backup of an external disk drive using the OS X Disk Utility found in the Applications/Utilities folder, take the following steps after attaching the drive to the Apple computer.

You can then use the OS X Finder program to view the files stored in the Apple Disk Image DMG file that was created by double-clicking on the .dmg file that was created.

[ More Info ]

[/os/os-x] permanent link

Sat, Jul 16, 2016 10:16 pm

Windows Technical Department Scam

My wife received a call at 1:02 PM Eastern Time today from someone with an Indian accent claiming he was from the "Windows Technical Department" calling because they noticed that our "computer is infected with some harmful viruses." The call was obviously a scam, but I picked up the phone and played along for several minutes to see what the person would try to do. He had me open the Windows Event Viewer and suggested that the entries I saw in the Application log indicated the system was infected with viruses. There will normally be a plethora of entries in the log associated with the normal functioning of a Microsoft Windows system, but I can undestand how such con artists might be able to scare someone who has never looked at such log entries before into thinking they were evidence of something being terribly wrong with his/her system. When I asked him what percentage of people he called fell for the scam, he insisted it wasn't a scam. When I asked him if he was calling from outside of the U.S. and so felt immune from prosecution in the U.S., he hung up. When I used *69 to get the calling number I found it was 315-825-8947. When I tried calling the number, I heard a recorded message stating "The person you are trying to reach is not accepting calls at this time. Please try your call again later."

When I then searched online for that number, I found others reporting receiving similar scam calls from that number, e.g., at the 800Notes page at 315-825-8947 I found reports such as "They called me 4 times. I finally picked up on the last time and it was a woman with an Indian accent claiming to be from Windows Tech Support and I immediately hung up. This is a scam."

Fifty minutes later, my wife received a similar call again at 1:52 PM from someone with an Indian accent. She informed the caller that she knew it was a scam and asked to be removed from the calling list. I used *69 again and this time I was informed that the caling number was 315-639-8222. I found that number also listed at the 800Notes site at 315-639-8222. When I tried calling that number I heard a message that "The number you have reached has been disconnected or is no longer in service."

We received two more "Windows Technical Departement" calls within a couple of hours. We were watching a series on Netflix during that period and I didn't try to check those two calling numbers with *69.

I think it was the second call where I again picked up the phone and talked to the caller who again had an Indian accent - my wife told me all four seemed to have an Indian accent. I asked where he was calling from and he told me New York. I asked him what company he worked for; he said "Windows Technical Department". I asked him if he knew what company produces Windows. He didn't answer, but attempted to continue with his spiel telling me where to click with the mouse. I tried to see if he knew anything except the spiel he had been given, but this caller wanted to stick with the spiel telling me where to click, though he eventually hung up when I told him to hold on for a minute while I went to another phone, where I was going to record our conversation.

My wife gets very annoyed by such calls; she's usually the one picking up the phone for our home phone number, which is a VoIP service from our cable provider. I haven't received such scam calls on my cell phone number, though I do get a fair number of unwanted telemarketing calls on that number, often from spoofed numbers. My wife said she frequently gets the Windows scam calls when I'm not home. A few months ago, I received a call on our home number from another scammer pretending to be from the IRS.

Our phone numbers are on the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Do Not Call list, but, of course, scammers, and many telemarketers as well, don't bother checking that list.

Coincidentally, today I read an article on the Ars Technica site titled Mobile carriers aren’t doing enough to fight robocalls, senators say. I wasn't pleased by the following paragraph in that article:

AT&T CEO Randall Stephenson recently claimed that AT&T doesn't have the "authority" to implement new robocall blocking technology in its mobile network, even though the Federal Communications Commission clearly stated last year that carriers have the "green light" to offer robocall-blocking services to consumers.

[/security/scams] permanent link

Fri, Jul 15, 2016 11:02 pm

Using the eject command on CentOS

To eject a CD/DVD tray on a CentOS 7 system, you can use the eject command. With no arguments given to the command on the command line, i.e., a shell prompt, the tray will be ejected. To retract the tray, you can use eject --trayclose or -t. You can use -T or --traytoggle to open the drive, if it is closed or close it, if it is open.

If you specify the -n or --noop option, information on the device will be shown, but no action is taken.

$ eject -n
eject: device is `/dev/sr0'

You can use eject --default to see the default name for the device.

$ eject --default
eject: default device: `/dev/cdrom'

[ More Info ]

[/os/unix/linux/centos] permanent link

Thu, Jul 14, 2016 10:53 pm

Time since last reboot on an OS X system

If you want to know how long a Mac OS X system has been running since the last reboot, you can use the uptime command, which can be run from a command line interface available from a Terminal window.
$ uptime
22:17  up 20 days, 12:24, 18 users, load averages: 2.95 2.93 2.46
$

The output above shows that the time is 10:17 PM (the time is in 24-hour clock format, often referred to as military time) and that it has been 20 days, 12 hours, and 24 minutes since the system was last rebooted. The three numbers at the end of the output, 2.95, 2.93, and 2.46, are the load average of the system over the last 1, 5, and 15 minutes.

The output above shows 18 users on the system when the uptime command was run. If you want to see a list of those users, use the w command. If you are the only user of the system, don't worry that you may see a number greater than 1 listed; it's likely they are all logins for your account as they were when I checked for the above instance where "18 users" was listed. The output is showing every logged in session and in this case I had multiple shell prompts through open tabs in the Terminal application.

[/os/os-x] permanent link

Wed, Jul 13, 2016 10:39 pm

Python control flow using comparators and logical operators

In Python, you can use the followng six comparators to determine if one value is or isn't equal to another or whether the value is less than, less than or equal to, greater than, or greater than or equal to another.

SymbolDescription
==Equal to
!=Not equal to
<Less than
<=Less than or equal to
>greater than
>=greater than or equal to

[ More Info ]

[/languages/python] permanent link

Tue, Jul 12, 2016 10:54 pm

OS X Wireless Diagnostics Conflicting Country Codes

I have been experiencing issues with wireless network connectivity at one location recently while using my MacBook Pro laptop running OS X Yosemite (10.10.5). Until fairly recently, wireless network connectivity at the location was great, but recently I would find that SSH connections I made from the laptop to another MacBook Pro laptop were constantly being dropped requiring me to re-establish the connection. And when I would ping the other system, which I was accessing via the wireless network, I would see "request timeout" messages. I would also see "request timeout" messages when I pinged the router's address. A few minutes later I might be able to successfully ping both systems. Or I could go to System Preferences , then double-click on Network, and then click on "Turn Wi-Fi Off" and then, after WiFi connectivity was disabled, I could turn it back on and the Wi-Fi access would then work.

When I used the airport utility from a Terminal windowto check the noise level and signal strength for the WiFi connection, I saw the following:

$ /System/Library/PrivateFrameworks/Apple80211.framework/Versions/Current/Resources/airport -I
     agrCtlRSSI: -56
     agrExtRSSI: 0
    agrCtlNoise: -87
    agrExtNoise: 0
          state: running
        op mode: station 
     lastTxRate: 73
        maxRate: 72
lastAssocStatus: 0
    802.11 auth: open
      link auth: wpa2-psk
          BSSID: 94:44:52:4a:43:40
           SSID: Rain
            MCS: 7
        channel: 11

[ More Info ]

[/os/os-x/wireless] permanent link

Sun, Jul 10, 2016 10:27 pm

Safari extensions not appearing

After reopening the last session when I reopened Safari 9.1.1 (10601.6.17) on a MacBook Pro laptop running OS X Yosemite (10.10.5), I found that, though the icon for Evernote was appearing the the left of the address bar, clicking on it did not bring up the Evernote window that would allow me to save webpages, though I had installed Evernote previously.

Evernote save button

I had closed and reopened Safari after it stopped responding to any keyboard entries or mouse movement.

When I clicked on Safari from Safari's menu bar and chose Preferences and then clicked on Extensions, no extensions were shown. I noticed that the Develop option was not appearing in the Safari menu bar, though I had enabled the Develop menu. So I re-enabled the Develop menu by clicking on Safari from the Safari menu bar, selecting Preferences, then clicking on Advanced and then checking the check box next to "Show Develop menu in menu bar". I then clicked on Develop from the menu bar when that option reappeared. I then selected Disable Extensions. I then clicked on Develop again and again selected Disable Extensions, which this time removed the check mark next to that option.

[ More Info ]

[/network/web/browser/safari] permanent link

Fri, Jul 08, 2016 10:55 pm

Ejecting a CD or DVD drive from a command prompt

If you need to eject a CD/DVD disk drive from a command line interface (CLI) there are a number of ways to do so. Three ways to do so from a command prompt on a Microsoft Windows system are included below.

Batch File

@echo off
echo Set oWMP = CreateObject("WMPlayer.OCX.7")  >> %temp%\temp.vbs
echo Set colCDROMs = oWMP.cdromCollection       >> %temp%\temp.vbs
echo For i = 0 to colCDROMs.Count-1             >> %temp%\temp.vbs
echo colCDROMs.Item(i).Eject                    >> %temp%\temp.vbs
echo next                                       >> %temp%\temp.vbs
echo oWMP.close                                 >> %temp%\temp.vbs
%temp%\temp.vbs
timeout /t 1
del %temp%\temp.vbs

[ More Info ]

[/os/windows/utilities] permanent link

Thu, Jul 07, 2016 9:46 pm

Correcting the time and date on a NetScreen router/firewall via a CLI

If you wish to check or update the date and time on a Juniper NetScreen router/firewall from a command line interface, you can establish a Secure Shell (SSH) connection to the device, provided you have already configured it to permit SSH access. You can then use the get clock command to view the current date and time on the Netscreen device.
ns5gt-> get clock
Date 06/24/1997 07:43:02, Daylight Saving Time enabled
The Network Time Protocol is Disabled
Up 917 hours 27 minutes 27 seconds Since 17 May 1997 02:15:35
867138182.710668 seconds since 1/1/1970 0:0:0 GMT
GMT time zone area -5:00
GMT time zone offset 4:00
ns5gt->

In the above output, I can see that the date and time are not set correctly. I can see that the time offset from Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is four hours, which is currently correct for this device, though. You can see the current GMT time as well as the times for many major cities throughout the world at The World Clock - Worldwide.

The set clock command can be used to set the date.

ns5gt-> set clock ?
mm/dd/yyyy           month/day/year
dst-off              disable daylight saving time
ntp                  enable network time protocol
timezone             GMT Time zone area
ns5gt->

You can specify the month, date, and year in the form mm/dd/yyyy . The time should be specified after the date in the form hh:mm or hh:mm:ss.

[ More Info ]

[/security/firewalls/netscreen] permanent link

Wed, Jul 06, 2016 11:03 pm

Checking Firefox bookmarks on OS X from a shell prompt

I needed to be able to retrieve a Firefox bookmark for an account on a MacBook Pro laptop running OS X Yosemite (10.10.5). I wanted to be able to view the bookmarks from a command line interface (CLI), i.e., a shell prompt that I would get in a Terminal window. On an OS X system, the bookmarks and other account-unique information is stored beneath the profile directory for the account, which you can find beneath the ~/Library/Application Support/Firefox/Profiles directory.
$ ls ~/Library/Application\ Support/Firefox/Profiles
bgq13udo.default
$

Within that directory is a places.sqlite SQLite database. OS X comes with the sqlite3 program for creating, viewing, and editing SQLite databases - see Using SQLite for information on how to use the program.

[ More Info ]

[/network/web/browser/firefox] permanent link

Tue, Jul 05, 2016 9:49 pm

Viewing cookies stored by a web page in Safari

I wanted to check on the cookies stored when I visited a site using Safari 9.1.1 (10601.6.17) on a MacBook Pro laptop running OS X Yosemite (10.10.5). When I clicked on Safari on the Safari menu bar and then selected Preferences, then Privacy, I saw a "Cookies and website data" section, but no means to view the cookies, only a way to delete them by clicking on Remove All Website Data.

Safari Privacy menu

However, you can configure Safari to show details on cookies that are placed on the system when you visit a webpage by taking the following steps within the Safari browser.

[ More Info ]

[/network/web/browser/safari] permanent link

Mon, Jul 04, 2016 2:36 pm

Dovecot - client connections are being dropped

Two users reported that they were not receiving any email this morning. I logged into the email server, which is a CentOS Linux system using Dovecot to provide POP3 email service, i.e., it is the software on the server to which email clients connect to download users' email. I then connected to the POP3 port, TCP port 110, using the Telnet program on the system and attempted to check email for a user's account by issuing the user command, but after I entered the command the connection was terminated before I could enter the pass command with the password for the account.
# telnet 127.0.0.1 110
Trying 127.0.0.1...
Connected to 127.0.0.1.
Escape character is '^]'.
user nell
Connection closed by foreign host.
#

So I then checked Dovecot's log file. I saw many entries similar to the following ones in that file:

# grep dovecot /var/log/maillog | tail -5
Jul  4 09:15:44 moonpoint dovecot: master: Warning: service(pop3-login): process
_limit (100) reached, client connections are being dropped
Jul  4 09:18:55 moonpoint dovecot: master: Warning: service(pop3-login): process
_limit (100) reached, client connections are being dropped
Jul  4 09:19:57 moonpoint dovecot: master: Warning: service(pop3-login): process
_limit (100) reached, client connections are being dropped
Jul  4 09:21:01 moonpoint dovecot: master: Warning: service(pop3-login): process
_limit (100) reached, client connections are being dropped
Jul  4 09:26:13 moonpoint dovecot: master: Warning: service(pop3-login): process
_limit (100) reached, client connections are being dropped
#

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[/network/email/dovecot] permanent link

Sun, Jul 03, 2016 10:55 pm

Generate random numbers on a Microsoft Windows system

If you need to produce a random number on a Microsoft Windows system, you can do so at a command line interface (CLI) or in a batch file using the %RANDOM% environment variable - see Windows Environment Variables for a list of the environment variables available on Microsoft Windows systems.

To generate random numbers at the command line, you can open a command prompt window and type echo %random%.

c:\Users\Public\Documents>echo %random%
31090

c:\Users\Public\Documents>echo %random%
16802

c:\Users\Public\Documents>echo %random%
20253

c:\Users\Public\Documents>

When you use %random%, you will get numbers between 0 and 32,767, which is 2 to the 15th power. But you can make the range of numbers smaller by using a command like the following where 0 is the lower bound for the numbers and n-1 is the upper bound of the range.

SET /a _rand=(%RANDOM%*n/32768)

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[/os/windows] permanent link

Sat, Jul 02, 2016 9:57 pm

SFTP received message too long error

I was able to log into a Microsoft Windows 7 system running CopSSH via Secure Shell (SSH) using PuTTY, but when I attempted to transfer a file to the system via the SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP) using WinSCP, I received the error message below:

Received too large (1298752370 B) SFTP package. Max supported package size
is 1024000 B.

The error is typically caused by message printed from startup script (like
.profile). The message may start with "Micr".

Cannot initialize SFTP protocol. Is the host running a SFTP server?

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[/network/ssh] permanent link

Fri, Jul 01, 2016 10:39 pm

2o7.net

While checking a firewall's logs, I noticed a "TCP FIN SCAN" entry for 66.235.139.18. The log entry showed the local host accessing port 80 on the remote host at that IP address. Out of curiosity, I performed an nslookup on the IP address. The PTR record for the IP address points to the 2o7.net domain name.
C:\>nslookup
Default Server:
Address:  192.168.0.1

> 66.235.139.18
Server:
Address:  192.168.0.1

Name:    *.112.2o7.net
Address:  66.235.139.18

>

When I put http://2o7.net in the address bar of a browser, I was taken to a Adobe Marketing Cloud privacy web page, which states:

The Adobe Marketing Cloud solutions enable our business customers to personalize and improve the performance of their websites, apps, and social networking pages. These companies use Adobe Marketing Cloud solutions to collect and analyze information, such as clicks made by visitors on their websites, apps, and social networking pages. The solutions also allow the companies to provide you with more relevant messages within their emails, text messages, and other online and offline marketing campaigns. In general, companies use Adobe Marketing Cloud solutions when they want to better understand and improve their online resources and marketing.

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[/network/Internet/domains] permanent link

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