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Sun, Mar 02, 2014 10:36 pm

Installing the SSH Server Service on Knoppix

You can determine if a Knoppix Linux system is listening for SSH connections on the standard SSH TCP port of 22 by issuing the command netstat -a | grep ssh. If you are returned to the shell prompt with no results displayed, then the system isn't listening for SSH connections on port 22.
root@Microknoppix:/# netstat -a | grep ssh

You can also check to see if it is running by using the command service --status-all. If there is a plus sign next to ssh, it is running. If, instead, there is a minus sign, it is not running.

root@Microknoppix:/# service --status-all
 [ - ]  acpid
 [ - ]  bootlogd
 [ - ]  bootlogs
 [ ? ]
 [ ? ]
 [ - ]
 [ ? ]
 [ ? ]  console-setup
 [ ? ]  cpufrequtils
 [ ? ]  cron
 [ ? ]  cryptdisks
 [ ? ]  cryptdisks-early
 [ + ]  dbus
 [ + ]  ebtables
 [ ? ]  etc-setserial
 [ - ]  fsaua
 [ ? ]  fsrcdtest
 [ - ]  fsupdate
 [ ? ]  fsusbstorage
 [ ? ]  gpm
 [ ? ]  hdparm
 [ - ]
 [ ? ]
 [ ? ]
 [ ? ]  ifupdown
 [ ? ]  ifupdown-clean
 [ ? ]  kexec
 [ ? ]  kexec-load
 [ ? ]  keyboard-setup
 [ ? ]
 [ ? ]  killprocs
 [ ? ]  klogd
 [ ? ]  knoppix-autoconfig
 [ ? ]  knoppix-halt
 [ ? ]  knoppix-reboot
 [ ? ]  knoppix-startx
 [ ? ]  loadcpufreq
 [ ? ]  lvm2
 [ ? ]  mdadm
 [ ? ]  mdadm-raid
 [ ? ]  module-init-tools
 [ ? ]
 [ ? ]
 [ ? ]
 [ ? ]
 [ ? ]
 [ ? ]
 [ ? ]  mountoverflowtmp
 [ ? ]
 [ + ]  network-manager
 [ ? ]  networking
 [ - ]  nfs-common
 [ - ]  nfs-kernel-server
 [ + ]  open-iscsi
 [ - ]  portmap
 [ ? ]  pppstatus
 [ ? ]  procps
 [ ? ]  rc.local
 [ - ]  rmnologin
 [ - ]  rsync
 [ ? ]  screen-cleanup
 [ ? ]  sendsigs
 [ ? ]  setserial
 [ - ]  smartmontools
 [ - ]  ssh
 [ - ]  stop-bootlogd
 [ - ]  stop-bootlogd-single
 [ ? ]  sudo
 [ ? ]  sysklogd
 [ ? ]  udev
 [ ? ]  udev-mtab
 [ ? ]  umountfs
 [ ? ]
 [ ? ]
 [ ? ]  umountroot
 [ - ]  urandom

On a Microknoppix system, such as may be present on a Rescue CD or other live CD or DVD, the SSH server software may not even be present on the CD or DVD. You can use the apt-cache search command followed by a regular expression, in this case ssh, to determine if the package is present on the system.

root@Microknoppix:/# apt-cache search ssh
libssl0.9.8 - SSL shared libraries
sshstart-knoppix - Starts SSH and sets a password for the knoppix user
openssh-client - secure shell (SSH) client, for secure access to remote machines

In the case above, I can see that only an SSH client is present. If I run the sshstart-knoppix command, I will be prompted to set a password for the knoppix account on the system, but, since the SSH server package is not present, the command won't actually start an sshd service.

If the SSH server service is not running and the SSH server package is not installed, first you need to install the SSH server software. To do so you may need to add an appropriate package repository, such as to the file /etc/apt/sources.list. E.g., you will need to do so when using the F-Secure 3.16 Rescue CD.

If you attempt to install the openssh-server package and see the results below, then you need to add an appropriate repository to /etc/apt/sources.list so the system can find the package and download it.

root@Microknoppix:/# apt-get install openssh-server
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree...
Reading state information... Done
Package openssh-server is not available, but is referred to by another package.
This may mean that the package is missiong, has been obsoleted, or
is only available from another source

E: Package 'openssh-server' has no installation candiate

You can add the repository to the end of the file by using the cat command. Type cat >> /etc/apt/sources.list (make sure you use two greater than signs so as to append to the file rather than overwrite it) then type deb stable main contrib non-free and then hit Enter. Then hit the Ctrl and D keys simultaneously, i.e., Ctrl-D. Next issue the command apt-get update. When that command has completed, issue the command apt-get install openssh-server. When informed of the amount of additional disk space that will be needed and them prompted as to whether you wish to continue, type "Y". When prompted "Install these packages without verification [y/N]?", enter "y".

When the command completes you can then issue the command netstat -a | grep ssh to verify that the system is listening on the SSH port, which is normally TCP port 22.

root@Microknoppix:/# netstat -a | grep ssh
tcp        0      0 *:ssh                   *:*                     LISTEN     
tcp6       0      0 [::]:ssh                [::]:*                  LISTEN

If you issued the command apt-cache search openssh-server at this point, you would see the following:

root@Microknoppix:/# apt-cache search openssh-server
openssh-server - secure shell (SSH) server, for secure access from remote machines

Use the passwd command to set the password for the knoppix account, which you can use for remote logins.

root@Microknoppix:/tmp# passwd knoppix
Enter new UNIX password:
Retype new UNIX password:
passwd: password updated successfully

Hit Return to continue.

Once the SSH server service is running, you should be able to connect to the system remotely with an SSH client on another system. To determine what IP address you should use for the connection, you can issue the command ifconfig. You should see an inet addr line that will provide the system's current IP address. It will typically be in the information provided for the eth0 network interface. The l0 interface is the local loopback interface, which will have an IP address of You can use that address to verify that the SSH connectivity is working from the local system, but not for a remote login.

root@Microknoppix:/# ifconfig
eth0      Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 00:18:f3:a6:01:8a  
          inet addr:  Bcast:  Mask:
          inet6 addr: fe80::218:f3ff:fea6:18a/64 Scope:Link
          RX packets:334286 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:262393 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 
          RX bytes:289663552 (276.2 MiB)  TX bytes:183570787 (175.0 MiB)
          Interrupt:23 Base address:0xc000 

lo        Link encap:Local Loopback  
          inet addr:  Mask:
          inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host
          UP LOOPBACK RUNNING  MTU:16436  Metric:1
          RX packets:24 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:24 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 
          RX bytes:2331 (2.2 KiB)  TX bytes:2331 (2.2 KiB)

To login remotely via SSH, use knoppix for the login account and provide the password you entered above for that account when prompted for the password. Once you have logged in under the knoppix account, you can obtain a Bash shell prompt for the root account using the command sudo bash.

knoppix@Microknoppix:~$ sudo bash

If you then need to stop, start, or restart the service, you can do so using /etc/init.d/ssh followed by the appropriate parameter.

root@Microknoppix:/# /etc/init.d/ssh
[info] Usage: /etc/init.d/ssh {start|stop|reload|force-reload|restart|try-restar

The configuration file for the SSHD service is /etc/ssh/ssh_config. You can change values by removing the comment character, #, from the beginning of a line and chaning the default value on the line, then stopping and restaring the service. Note: stopping the sshd service won't disconnect an existing SSH connection, so you can remotely restart the service with /etc/init.d/ssh restart without being disconnected.

[/os/unix/linux/knoppix] permanent link

Fri, Mar 19, 2010 12:55 pm

Obtaining an IP Address via DHCP

If a Knoppix system doesn't have an IP address assigned to an Ethernet interface, you can obtain one by downing the interface with ifdown eth0 and then brining it back up with ifup eth0, which will cause the system to try to obtain an address via DHCP.

[/os/unix/linux/knoppix] permanent link

Fri, Mar 19, 2010 12:07 pm

Mounting a Windows Hibernated Drive under Knoppix

After shutting down a Windows Vista laptop into hibernation mode, I wanted to copy the hibernation file, hiberfil.sys from the Windows Vista laptop's hard disk drive to an external USB drive to analyze it on another system. I removed the drive from the laptop and put it into a Thermaltake Black Widow hard dirve eSATA + USB Docking Station, which I attached the system I would use for the backup. I was unable to boot that system from a BartPE boot disc, so I booted the system instead from a Knoppix Linux Live CD. However, when I connected the docking station with the laptop drive in it to the system, I received the message below:

Error - Konqueror
Windows is hibernated, won't mount.

Failed to mount '/dev/sdb1': Operation not permitted

The NTFS partition is hibernated. Please resume WIndows and turned it

off properly, so mounting could be done safely.



I only needed to mount the drive in read-only mode to copy hiberfil.sys from it, so I obtained a command prompt and opened a Bash shell, switched to the root account and mounted the device in read-only mode. I had another external USB drive attached, which was to hold the backup, as /dev/sda1. The laptop drive had two partitions on it: the Windows Vista partition, which was /dev/sdb1 and a recovery partition, which was /dev/sdb2.

knoppix@Knoppix:~$ sudo bash
root@Knoppix:~# mount -r /dev/sdb1 /media/sdb1

After copying hiberfil.sys from the laptop drive to the other external USB drive, I unmounted the laptop drive.

root@Knoppix:~# umount /dev/sdb2
root@Knoppix:~# umount /dev/sdb1

I checked the contents of the backup copy of hiberfil.sys with the od command. I saw that the first 4 bytes of the file were "HIBR", which indicates the system containing the file was last shutdown into hibernate mode rather than to a normal shutdown state. To view just the first 8 bytes of the file with od, you can use od -a -N 8.

root@Knoppix:~# od -a -N 8 /mnt/hdd/hiberfil.sys
0000000   w   a   k   e ht nul nul nul


  1. Hibernation (computing)
    Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  2. Mounting a Hibernated Drive
    Date: November 27, 2007
    MoonPoint Support

[/os/unix/linux/knoppix] permanent link

Tue, Aug 25, 2009 9:23 pm

Obtaining an IP Address via DHCP with Pump on a Knoppix System

To obtain an IP address via the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) on a Knoppix Linux system, you can use pump. As root, you can issue the commands below:

ifconfig eth0 up
pump -i eth0

The options available for pump are shown below:

root@Knoppix:~# pump --help
Usage: pump [OPTION...]
  -c, --config-file=STRING     Configuration file to use instead of
  -h, --hostname=hostname      Hostname to request
  -i, --interface=iface        Interface to configure (normally eth0)
  -k, --kill                   Kill daemon (and disable all interfaces)
  -l, --lease=hours            Lease time to request (in hours)
  -L, --leasesecs=seconds      Lease time to request (in seconds)
  --lookup-hostname            Force lookup of hostname
  -r, --release                Release interface
  -R, --renew                  Force immediate lease renewal
  -v, --verbose                Log verbose debug info
  -s, --status                 Display interface status
  -d, --no-dns                 Don't update resolv.conf
  --no-gateway                 Don't set a gateway for this interface
  --no-setup                   Don't set up anything
  --no-resolvconf              Don't set up resolvconf
  --no-bootp                   Ignore non-DHCP BOOTP responses
  --script=STRING              Script to use
  --win-client-ident           Set the client identifier to match Window's

Help options:
  -?, --help                   Show this help message

[/os/unix/linux/knoppix] permanent link

Mon, Aug 10, 2009 12:27 pm

Proxychains and Knoppix

If you are using a Knoppix Linux system behind a SOCKS proxy server, you can use the proxychains package to enable applications that don't natively understand how to use a SOCKS proxy to work through the SOCKS proxy. The proxychains program forces any tcp connection made by any given TCP client to go through the specified proxy server (or proxy chain). It is a kind of proxifier. It acts like sockscap / premeo / eborder driver (intercepts TCP calls). Proxychains supports SOCKS4, SOCKS5 and HTTP CONNECT proxy servers. Different proxy types can be mixed in the same chain.

Since Mozilla Firefox understands how to use SOCKS proxies, you can configure it to go through the SOCKS proxy. You can configure it to use a SOCKS proxy by clicking on Edit, then Preferences, and then the Network tab. Click on Settings and then select Manual proxy configuration. For a SOCKS proxy, put the address of the SOCKS proxy server in the SOCKS Host field and the port that is being used on that server in the Port field.

If I establish a SOCKS proxy server using the ssh command, e.g. ssh -D 8055 jdoe@, then I'm tunneling connections to the SOCKS proxy through the encrypted SSH connection and I will use in the SOCKS host field and 8055 in the Port field, rather than the default SOCKS proxy port of 1080.

After downloading the proxychains package with Mozilla Firefox, aka iceweasel, I used dpkg to install it.

root@Knoppix:/home/knoppix# dpkg --install proxychains_2.1-5_i386.deb 
Selecting previously deselected package proxychains.
(Reading database ... 0 files and directories currently installed.)
Unpacking proxychains (from proxychains_2.1-5_i386.deb) ...
dpkg: dependency problems prevent configuration of proxychains:
 proxychains depends on libc6 (>= 2.3.2.ds1-21); however:
  Package libc6 is not installed.
dpkg: error processing proxychains (--install):
 dependency problems - leaving unconfigured
Errors were encountered while processing:

Proxychains looks for its configuration file in the following order:

  1. ./proxychains.conf
  2. $(HOME)/.proxychains/proxychains.conf
  3. /etc/proxychains.conf

I copied the sample file /etc/proxychains.conf.dpkg-new to /etc/proxychains.conf.

root@Knoppix:/home/knoppix# cp /etc/proxychains.conf.dpkg-new /etc/proxychains.conf

The following default information appears in that file:

# ProxyList format
#       type  host  port [user pass]
#       (values separated by 'tab' or 'blank')
#        Examples:
#               socks5   1080    lamer  secret
#               http    8080    justu   hidden
#               socks4    1080
#               http   8080    
#       proxy types: http, socks4, socks5
#        ( auth types supported: "basic"-http  "user/pass"-socks )
http 3128
http 3128
http 3128
#socks5 1080
#socks4 1080
#http 8080

I commented out the http lines with the address by placing a "#" at the beginning of the line. I then removed the "#" from the socks5 line and changed the address from to, since I was establishing a socks proxy using the ssh command. I changed the port from the default SOCKS port of 1080 to the one I used when I established the SOCKS proxy with ssh -D 8055 jdoe@, i.e. port 8055. I then had the following lines in proxychains.conf.

# http 3128
# http 3128
# http 3128
socks5 8055
#socks4 1080
#http 8080

I also commented out "random_chain" and "chain_len" and uncommented "strict_chain".

I was then able to use proxychains with gpg to import a public key for a package repository into the public keyring for the root account.

root@Knoppix:/home/knoppix# proxychains gpg --keyserver --rec
v-keys 9AA38DCD55BE302B
gpg: requesting key 55BE302B from hkp server
ProxyChains-2.1 (
random chain (1):....
gpg: /root/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg: trustdb created
gpg: key 55BE302B: public key "Debian Archive Automatic Signing Key (5.0/lenny) 
<>" imported
gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found
gpg: Total number processed: 1
gpg:               imported: 1  (RSA: 1)

I was also able to use proxychains for apt-get update by using proxychains apt-get update.


  1. ProxyChains - README (HowTo) TCP and DNS through proxy server, HTTP and SOCKS

[/os/unix/linux/knoppix] permanent link

Sun, Aug 09, 2009 10:23 am

Debian Version

Knoppix is vased on the Debian distribution of Linux. You can find the particular version of Debian on which it is based by checking /etc/debian_version.
root@Knoppix:~# cat /etc/debian_version

[/os/unix/linux/knoppix] permanent link

Fri, Nov 16, 2007 7:34 pm

Linux LiveCD SATA Support

I booted a system which has a Serial ATA (SATA) drive in it from a Knoppix 5.0.1 LiveCD, but could not get the operating system to recognize the presence of the hard drive. So I then booted from a Slax LiveCD, but it did not recognize the drive either. The version of Slax I tried was the SLAX KillBill Edition I then booted the system with a Sabayon 3.4e DVD. I was able to access the SATA drive then.

The problem is apparently due to the other distributions of Linux not recognizing the Serial ATA chipset on the motherboard of the system, at least for the versions that I was using. The system has a PCChips A31G V:1.0 motherboard According to Serial ATA (SATA) chipsets ? Linux support status, "Some SATA chipsets have been supported since practically forever, as their programming interfaces are unchanged from PATA predecessors. Others are brand-new and require new drivers from scratch.


  1. LiveCD
    Wikipedia - the free encyclopedia
  2. Serial ATA (SATA) chipsets ? Linux support status
    Revised: February 27, 2007

[/os/unix/linux/knoppix] permanent link

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