You can use a BitDefender
Rescue CD, which is a a
live CD using Knoppix Linux, to boot
a Windows system without using Windows in order to scan the system for viruses
and other malware. Knoppix Linux is based on
Debian. You can determine which version
of Debian is being used by looking in
The BitDefender Rescue CD comes with some software aside from the BitDefender
anvirus software. For instance, Mozilla Firefox and Partition Image are also
on the live CD. But you may want to add other software as well. Knoppix
Linux uses binary packages in
.deb format, which can be downloaded and installed with the
apt-get utility that will be accessible once you boot a system
from the live CD. For an explanation of .deb files, see
Deb files or Debian Packages.
You can view a list of available Debian packages at
apt-get utility is part of the
Packaging Tool (APT) package management software.
Let's suppose the package you want to install is tcpstat, which reports certain network interface statistics much like vmstat does for system statistics. tcpstat gets its information by either monitoring a specific interface, or by reading previously saved tcpdump data from a file.
Before you use
apt-get to install the package you wish to use,
you will need to create some directories that
expects to be present, but which aren't present when you boot from the rescue
So right-click on the desktop and select Terminal (as root) to open a
terminal window then enter the commands shown below.
root@Knoppix:~# mkdir /var/lib/apt/lists root@Knoppix:~# mkdir /var/lib/apt/lists/partial
I can then try installing the tcpstat package with apt-get.
root@Knoppix:~# apt-get install tcpstat E: Could not open lock file /var/lib/dpkg/lock - open (2 No such file or directory) E: Unable to lock the administration directory (/var/lib/dpkg/), are you root? root@Knoppix:~#
The problem is that the
/var/lib/dpkgk directory doesn't exist,
so I need to create it as well. I'll also create the other directories and
dpkg expects (see
Using dpkg with BitDefender Rescue CD).
root@Knoppix:~# mkdir /var/lib/dpkg root@Knoppix:~# mkdir /var/lib/dpkg/info root@Knoppix:~# mkdir /var/lib/dpkg/updates root@Knoppix:~# touch /var/lib/dpkg/status root@Knoppix:~# touch /var/lib/dpkg/available
I can then try installing tcpstat again with apt-get.
If you see messages, such as the following, you can edit
/etc/apt/sources.list and comment out the entries that lead
to the errors.
W: Couldn't stat source package list http://people.debian.org ./ Packages (/var/lib/apt/lists/people.debian.org_%7easac_experimental_._Packages) - stat (2 No such file or directory)
In the example above, I saw "Couldn't stat source package list
http://people.debian.org ." In
/etc/apt/sources.list, I saw
# Thunderbird deb http://people.debian.org/~asac/experimental ./ deb-src http://people.debian.org/~asac/experimental ./
So I commented out the to lines referring to http://people.debian.org by placing a "#" at the beginning of each line.
But I was also seeing lines, such as the following, in the output when I ran apt-get.
W: Couldn't stat source package list
http://security.debian.org stable/updates/contrib Packages
- stat (2 No such file or directory)
So I ran
apt-get update does not
upgrade packages, it just updates information from repositories listed in
When I ran
apt-get update, I saw messages such as the
Reading package lists... Done
W: GPG error: http://security.debian.org stable/updates Release: The following signatures couldn't be verified because the public key is not available: NO_PUBKEY 9AA38DCD55BE302B
W: GPG error: http://security.debian.org testing/updates Release: The following signatures couldn't be verified because the public key is not available: NO_PUBKEY 9AA38DCD55BE302B
W: GPG error: http://ftp.ro.debian.org stable Release: The following signatures couldn't be verified because the public key is not available: NO_PUBKEY 9AA38DCD55BE302B NO_PUBKEY 4D270D06F42584E6
To rectify that problem, I used the commands below. The
gpg --keyserver wwwkeys.eu.pgp.net --recv-keys 9AA38DCD55BE302B command uses the
gpg utility to query the PGP keyserver wwwkeys.eu.pgp.net for the
key corresponding to key id
9AA38DCD55BE302B and to import that
apt-key command manages apt's list of trusted keys adding
the key just imported to the
GNU Privacy Guard
(GPG) public keyring for the root account to apt's list of trusted
root@Knoppix:# gpg --keyserver wwwkeys.eu.pgp.net --recv-keys 9AA38DCD55BE302B gpg: requesting key 55BE302B from hkp server wwwkeys.eu.pgp.net gpg: /root/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg: trustdb created gpg: key 55BE302B: public key "Debian Archive Automatic Signing Key (5.0/lenny) <email@example.com>" imported gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found gpg: Total number processed: 1 gpg: imported: 1 (RSA: 1) root@Knoppix:/home/knoppix# gpg --armor --export 9AA38DCD55BE302B | apt-key add - OK
I was then able to install the
root@Knoppix:~# apt-get install tcpstat Building dependency tree... Done The following extra packages will be installed: gcc-4.4-base libc6 libgcc1 libpcap0.8 Suggested packages: locales glibc-doc Recommended packages: tcpdump The following NEW packages will be installed: gcc-4.4-base libc6 libgcc1 libpcap0.8 tcpstat 0 upgraded, 5 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded. Need to get 4691kB of archives. After unpacking 11.7MB of additional disk space will be used. Do you want to continue [Y/n]? Y WARNING: The following packages cannot be authenticated! gcc-4.4-base libgcc1 libc6 libpcap0.8 tcpstat Install these packages without verification [y/N]? y Get:1 http://ftp.ro.debian.org testing/main gcc-4.4-base 4.4.1-1 [110kB] Get:2 http://ftp.ro.debian.org testing/main libgcc1 1:4.4.1-1 [72.9kB] Get:3 http://ftp.ro.debian.org testing/main libc6 2.9-23 [4367kB] Get:4 http://ftp.ro.debian.org testing/main libpcap0.8 1.0.0-2 [117kB] Get:5 http://ftp.ro.debian.org stable/main tcpstat 1.5-2 [24.3kB] Fetched 4691kB in 9s (495kB/s) E: Cannot get debconf version. Is debconf installed? debconf: apt-extracttemplates failed: Bad file descriptorSelecting previously deselected package gcc-4.4-base. (Reading database ... 0 files and directories currently installed.) Unpacking gcc-4.4-base (from .../gcc-4.4-base_4.4.1-1_i386.deb) ... Selecting previously deselected package libgcc1. Unpacking libgcc1 (from .../libgcc1_1%3a4.4.1-1_i386.deb) ... Selecting previously deselected package libc6. Unpacking libc6 (from .../archives/libc6_2.9-23_i386.deb) ... Matching libraries: /UNIONFS/lib/libc.so.6 Another copy of the C library was found via /etc/ld.so.conf. It is not safe to upgrade the C library in this situation; please remove the directory from /etc/ld.so.conf and try again. dpkg: error processing /var/cache/apt/archives/libc6_2.9-23_i386.deb (--unpack): subprocess pre-installation script returned error exit status 1 Selecting previously deselected package libpcap0.8. Unpacking libpcap0.8 (from .../libpcap0.8_1.0.0-2_i386.deb) ... Selecting previously deselected package tcpstat. Unpacking tcpstat (from .../tcpstat_1.5-2_i386.deb) ... Errors were encountered while processing: /var/cache/apt/archives/libc6_2.9-23_i386.deb localepurge: Disk space freed in /usr/share/man: -16K E: Sub-process /usr/bin/dpkg returned an error code (1) root@Knoppix:~#root@Knoppix:~#
Even though I saw some error messages, such as "dpkg: error processing
/var/cache/apt/archives/libc6_2.9-23_i386.deb (--unpack)", the package was
installed and I was able to use
root@Knoppix:~# tcpstat Listening on eth0 Time:1249840979 n=5 avg=46.00 stddev=0.00 bps=368.00 Time:1249840984 n=5 avg=46.00 stddev=0.00 bps=368.00 Time:1249840989 n=6 avg=46.00 stddev=0.00 bps=441.60 Time:1249840994 n=2 avg=46.00 stddev=0.00 bps=147.20
You can see information on a package you've installed with the
aptitude command. Aptitude is an advanced command line front-end
root@Knoppix:~# aptitude show tcpstat Package: tcpstat New: yes State: unpacked Automatically installed: no Version: 1.5-2 Priority: extra Section: net Maintainer: Luk Claes <firstname.lastname@example.org> Uncompressed Size: 98.3k Depends: libc6 (>= 2.7-1), libpcap0.8 (>= 0.9.3-1) Recommends: tcpdump Description: network interface statistics reporting tool tcpstat reports certain network interface statistics much like vmstat does for system statistics. tcpstat gets its information by either monitoring a specific interface, or by reading previously saved tcpdump data from a file. Tags: admin::monitoring, interface::commandline, protocol::ip, qa::orphaned, role::program, scope::utility, use::monitor, use::viewing
If a package isn't installed, you will see "State: not installed" in the
Created: Tuesday August 11, 2009