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Sun, Mar 02, 2014 10:40 pm

F-Secure Rescue CD 3.16

F-Secure provides a free Rescue CD which allows you to boot a PC from a CD and scan it for malware using F-Secure's antivirus software. The F-Secure Rescue CD will attempt to disinfect any infected files and will rename any it can't disinfect by putting a .virus extension at the end of the file name. By doing that, when you reboot the system into Microsoft Windows, the infected file will not be loaded into memory.

[ More Info ]

[/security/antivirus/f-secure] permanent link

Sun, Mar 02, 2014 10:36 pm

Installing the SSH Server Service on Knoppix

You can determine if a Knoppix Linux system is listening for SSH connections on the standard SSH TCP port of 22 by issuing the command netstat -a | grep ssh. If you are returned to the shell prompt with no results displayed, then the system isn't listening for SSH connections on port 22.
root@Microknoppix:/# netstat -a | grep ssh

You can also check to see if it is running by using the command service --status-all. If there is a plus sign next to ssh, it is running. If, instead, there is a minus sign, it is not running.

root@Microknoppix:/# service --status-all
 [ - ]  acpid
 [ - ]  bootlogd
 [ - ]  bootlogs
 [ ? ]
 [ ? ]
 [ - ]
 [ ? ]
 [ ? ]  console-setup
 [ ? ]  cpufrequtils
 [ ? ]  cron
 [ ? ]  cryptdisks
 [ ? ]  cryptdisks-early
 [ + ]  dbus
 [ + ]  ebtables
 [ ? ]  etc-setserial
 [ - ]  fsaua
 [ ? ]  fsrcdtest
 [ - ]  fsupdate
 [ ? ]  fsusbstorage
 [ ? ]  gpm
 [ ? ]  hdparm
 [ - ]
 [ ? ]
 [ ? ]
 [ ? ]  ifupdown
 [ ? ]  ifupdown-clean
 [ ? ]  kexec
 [ ? ]  kexec-load
 [ ? ]  keyboard-setup
 [ ? ]
 [ ? ]  killprocs
 [ ? ]  klogd
 [ ? ]  knoppix-autoconfig
 [ ? ]  knoppix-halt
 [ ? ]  knoppix-reboot
 [ ? ]  knoppix-startx
 [ ? ]  loadcpufreq
 [ ? ]  lvm2
 [ ? ]  mdadm
 [ ? ]  mdadm-raid
 [ ? ]  module-init-tools
 [ ? ]
 [ ? ]
 [ ? ]
 [ ? ]
 [ ? ]
 [ ? ]
 [ ? ]  mountoverflowtmp
 [ ? ]
 [ + ]  network-manager
 [ ? ]  networking
 [ - ]  nfs-common
 [ - ]  nfs-kernel-server
 [ + ]  open-iscsi
 [ - ]  portmap
 [ ? ]  pppstatus
 [ ? ]  procps
 [ ? ]  rc.local
 [ - ]  rmnologin
 [ - ]  rsync
 [ ? ]  screen-cleanup
 [ ? ]  sendsigs
 [ ? ]  setserial
 [ - ]  smartmontools
 [ - ]  ssh
 [ - ]  stop-bootlogd
 [ - ]  stop-bootlogd-single
 [ ? ]  sudo
 [ ? ]  sysklogd
 [ ? ]  udev
 [ ? ]  udev-mtab
 [ ? ]  umountfs
 [ ? ]
 [ ? ]
 [ ? ]  umountroot
 [ - ]  urandom

On a Microknoppix system, such as may be present on a Rescue CD or other live CD or DVD, the SSH server software may not even be present on the CD or DVD. You can use the apt-cache search command followed by a regular expression, in this case ssh, to determine if the package is present on the system.

root@Microknoppix:/# apt-cache search ssh
libssl0.9.8 - SSL shared libraries
sshstart-knoppix - Starts SSH and sets a password for the knoppix user
openssh-client - secure shell (SSH) client, for secure access to remote machines

In the case above, I can see that only an SSH client is present. If I run the sshstart-knoppix command, I will be prompted to set a password for the knoppix account on the system, but, since the SSH server package is not present, the command won't actually start an sshd service.

If the SSH server service is not running and the SSH server package is not installed, first you need to install the SSH server software. To do so you may need to add an appropriate package repository, such as to the file /etc/apt/sources.list. E.g., you will need to do so when using the F-Secure 3.16 Rescue CD.

If you attempt to install the openssh-server package and see the results below, then you need to add an appropriate repository to /etc/apt/sources.list so the system can find the package and download it.

root@Microknoppix:/# apt-get install openssh-server
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree...
Reading state information... Done
Package openssh-server is not available, but is referred to by another package.
This may mean that the package is missiong, has been obsoleted, or
is only available from another source

E: Package 'openssh-server' has no installation candiate

You can add the repository to the end of the file by using the cat command. Type cat >> /etc/apt/sources.list (make sure you use two greater than signs so as to append to the file rather than overwrite it) then type deb stable main contrib non-free and then hit Enter. Then hit the Ctrl and D keys simultaneously, i.e., Ctrl-D. Next issue the command apt-get update. When that command has completed, issue the command apt-get install openssh-server. When informed of the amount of additional disk space that will be needed and them prompted as to whether you wish to continue, type "Y". When prompted "Install these packages without verification [y/N]?", enter "y".

When the command completes you can then issue the command netstat -a | grep ssh to verify that the system is listening on the SSH port, which is normally TCP port 22.

root@Microknoppix:/# netstat -a | grep ssh
tcp        0      0 *:ssh                   *:*                     LISTEN     
tcp6       0      0 [::]:ssh                [::]:*                  LISTEN

If you issued the command apt-cache search openssh-server at this point, you would see the following:

root@Microknoppix:/# apt-cache search openssh-server
openssh-server - secure shell (SSH) server, for secure access from remote machines

Use the passwd command to set the password for the knoppix account, which you can use for remote logins.

root@Microknoppix:/tmp# passwd knoppix
Enter new UNIX password:
Retype new UNIX password:
passwd: password updated successfully

Hit Return to continue.

Once the SSH server service is running, you should be able to connect to the system remotely with an SSH client on another system. To determine what IP address you should use for the connection, you can issue the command ifconfig. You should see an inet addr line that will provide the system's current IP address. It will typically be in the information provided for the eth0 network interface. The l0 interface is the local loopback interface, which will have an IP address of You can use that address to verify that the SSH connectivity is working from the local system, but not for a remote login.

root@Microknoppix:/# ifconfig
eth0      Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 00:18:f3:a6:01:8a  
          inet addr:  Bcast:  Mask:
          inet6 addr: fe80::218:f3ff:fea6:18a/64 Scope:Link
          RX packets:334286 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:262393 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 
          RX bytes:289663552 (276.2 MiB)  TX bytes:183570787 (175.0 MiB)
          Interrupt:23 Base address:0xc000 

lo        Link encap:Local Loopback  
          inet addr:  Mask:
          inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host
          UP LOOPBACK RUNNING  MTU:16436  Metric:1
          RX packets:24 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:24 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 
          RX bytes:2331 (2.2 KiB)  TX bytes:2331 (2.2 KiB)

To login remotely via SSH, use knoppix for the login account and provide the password you entered above for that account when prompted for the password. Once you have logged in under the knoppix account, you can obtain a Bash shell prompt for the root account using the command sudo bash.

knoppix@Microknoppix:~$ sudo bash

If you then need to stop, start, or restart the service, you can do so using /etc/init.d/ssh followed by the appropriate parameter.

root@Microknoppix:/# /etc/init.d/ssh
[info] Usage: /etc/init.d/ssh {start|stop|reload|force-reload|restart|try-restar

The configuration file for the SSHD service is /etc/ssh/ssh_config. You can change values by removing the comment character, #, from the beginning of a line and chaning the default value on the line, then stopping and restaring the service. Note: stopping the sshd service won't disconnect an existing SSH connection, so you can remotely restart the service with /etc/init.d/ssh restart without being disconnected.

[/os/unix/linux/knoppix] permanent link

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