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Tue, Apr 05, 2022 6:05 pm

Let's Encrypt Problem binding to port 80: Could not bind to IPv4 or IPv6

A couple of users notified me that they were receiving warning messages regarding the security certificate on their email server when they were checking email with Microsoft Outlook. I checked the expiration date on the security certificate for the email server with the OpenSSL command openssl s_client -connect (the system is using Dovecot, which is an open-source IMAP/POP3 software program providing users with the ability to download their email). Dovecot listens on TCP port 995 for POP3S secure email connections for downloading email. I could see the certificae was expired and I issued the quit command when I saw the "OK Dovecot ready" prompt. The email security certificate on the system is provided by Let's Encrypt, so I then tried renewing the certificate from the root account with the letsencrypt renew command, but was unsuccessful. I found the solution was to stop the Apache web server software running on the system, thanks to a post by JuergenAuer at Renewing certificate getting error: Problem binding to port 80: Could not bind to IPv4 or IPv6. After I stopped the web server software, I was able to reissue the letsencrypt command to renew the certificate without the "Problem binding to port 80" error message. I then restarted the Apache web server software and Dovecot.

[ More Info ]

[/security/encryption/openssl] permanent link

Tue, Mar 29, 2022 9:42 pm

Close Microsoft News and Interests Popup

On a Microsoft Windows 10 system, unless the News and Interests feature has been disabled, you will see an area at the bottom right of the screen in the notifications area, aka status area, of the taskbar displaying information about the weather, such as the local temperature where you live.

You can click on that area to view the titles of news articles deemed of interest to you. When you click on it, you will see something similar to what is displayed in the image below.

Popup - News and Interests

If you click outside of the area, the area that pops up with the news articles will normally go away, but sometimes it will remain and won't go away if you click elswhere, hit Escape, click on the refresh icon in the area, etc. There is an option to disable the News and Interests display, which you can get to by right-clicking on the area where the temperature is displayed. But if you do that when the popup display for News and Interests is stuck on the screen then you can't see the options area to disable it because it is behind the area where the News and Interests appear and is thus inaccessible. In such cases, I've found that changing the display settings and then reverting the settings to what they were resolves the problem. You can get rid of the News and Windows popup display by the following steps:

  1. You can hit the Windows key (the one with the Windows symbol on it, which may be on the left side of your keyboard between the Ctrl and Alt keys, to display the desktop. Or, alternatively, you could manually minimize all open windows.
  2. Right-click on an open area somewhere on the desktop and select Display Settings. If the Display Settings window isn't fully visible when you do so, drag that window into a position where you can see the settings.
  3. Change the display resolution.
  4. When asked whether you wish to keep the new resolution or revert to the prior resolution, choose Revert.

The News and Interests display should then disappear. You should be able to click on it again, though, if you want to see the latest news headlines, but have it go away when you click elsewhere.

[ More Info ]

[/os/windows/win10] permanent link

Fri, Feb 04, 2022 3:27 pm

Evernote - Clipper has encountered an error

Recently, when I've tried to save a webpage to Evernote in the Brave web browser, I frequently see the message "Clipper has encountered an error" with "Unknown error occurred. UNK."

Clipper unknown error

I have been able to save the page by disabling and then re-enabling the Evernote extension in the browser. In the Brave Browser, you can do so by closing the error message window, then clicking on the icon of 3 short horizontal bars at the upper, left-hand side of the Brave window which will display a menu of options. Select "extensions" and then click on the red slider button at the bottom, right-hand side of the Evernote Web Clipper extension to turn it off (it will go from red to gray).

Evernote Web Clipper

Then click on it again to re-enable the extension. You can then close the Brave extensions tab (brave://extensions). You will then need to refresh the page. After I've disabled and re-enabled the extension when I've seen the error message, I've then been able to click on the icon for Evernote near the browser's address bar and save webpages to Evernote.

[/network/web/browser/brave/evernote] permanent link

Sat, Jan 22, 2022 10:37 pm

AMD FX-6350 Six-Core Processor and Windows 11

When I went to Settings then Update & Security on a computer running Microsoft Windows 10 to update it to Windows 11, I saw the message "This PC doesn't currently meet the minimum system requirements to run Windows 11" and "Get the details and see if there are things you can do in the PC Health Check app." So I clicked on the " Get PC Health Check" link and downloaded and installed the application. When I ran the program, it reported "This PC doesn't currently meet Windows 11 system requirements" and provided details as to why that assessment was made. The system has adequate memory, disk space, and a 3.9 GHz processor (the minimum processor speed required is 1 GHz) with 3 cores (2 or more are required), but there was a warning that "This PC must support Secure Boot" and "TPM 2.0 must be supported and enabled on this PC." Secure Boot is a Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI)" specification. The system is configured for UEFI booting but, even if it wasn't, the October 11, 2021 article How to Install Windows 11 on Legacy BIOS without Secure Boot or TPM 2.0 by Parth Sawhney provides a workaround for systems booting from Basic Input/Output System (BIOS), which UEFI replaced.

PC Health Check - Requirements not met

But the indication that the AMD FX™-6350 Six-Core Processor was not supported seemed a showstopper. I also checked the June 29, 2021 List of Intel and AMD Processors NOT Supported by Windows 11 by Shivam Malani and found the FX-6350 processor is also listed there. The author of that article notes “there’s an endless list of processors that Windows 11 doesn’t support. Even systems capable of flawlessly running high-end games aren’t eligible for Windows 11 due to the limited hardware support” and states that if a system is more than four years old that it is very less likely to be among systems that can be upgraded to Windows 11. A list of Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) processors supported in Windows 11 can be found in the December 2, 2021 article Windows 11 supported AMD processors on the Microsoft Docs website.

You can obtain brief details on a system's processor through Windows Management Instrumentation Command-line (WMIC) at a command prompt inteface.

C:\>wmic cpu list brief /format:list

Caption=AMD64 Family 21 Model 2 Stepping 0
Name=AMD FX(tm)-6350 Six-Core Processor
SocketDesignation=CPU 1


You can check the full details on a processor from a command-line interface (CLI) with wmic cpu list /format:list.

[/os/windows/win11] permanent link

Mon, Jan 17, 2022 10:09 pm

Western Digital My Book disk drive P/N WDBBGB0080HBK-NA Adapter

I found a Western Digital 8 TB My Book external USB disk drive with part number WDBBGB0080HBK-NA in a box with a number of other disk drives, but the box did not contain the power adapter for that drive. The back of the drive has "12V" next to the place where the power adapter connects to the drive but no indication of the amps needed. You can find a listing of the specs for power adapters needed for various disk drives at Western Digital's Power Adapters for WD Products webpage. That page shows that the My Book drives with the following part numbers use AC adapters that are 12 volts, 1.5 amps, and 18 watts.


Note: you can find an explanation of the format Western Digital uses for their model numbers in the PDF file downloadable from Western Digital at Model Numbers - Branded Products or here. For older drives, Western Digital also provides a Retired Model and Order Number Formats for WD Products document that is also available here.

In this case, the "0080H" indicates the drive is a 3.5" drive with a capacity of 8TB.

I didn't have a power adapter from another Western Digital drive handy that met the required specifications for volts, amps, and watts. I could order a needed adapter online—the WD 18-watt power adapter is model number WDPS037RNN while the 36-watt version is model WDPS039RNN—from Amazon and receive the adapter in just a few days, but I needed to check on whether that particular drive held a needed backup immediately. I had a Seagate Backup Plus 5 TB USB 3.0 Desktop Drive available with an ADS-18E-12N power adapter which lists an output of 12V and 1.5A on the adapter, so I figured I could use that drive, since though that adapter doesn't list the wattage, the formula to calculate watts if the amperage and voltage are known is amps x volts = watts and 12 x 1.5 = 18 (Obtain Watts from Amps and Volts provides an online converter). So I was able to use the Shenzhen Honor Electronic Co. ADS-18E-12N adapter from the Seagate drive on the Western Digital drive. Unfortunately, though it held a backup for the system for which I needed to recover files, that backup did not contain the needed files.


  1. Specs of the WD Essential Power Adapter
    By Dan Ketchum

[/hardware/power/adapters/wdc] permanent link

Tue, Jan 04, 2022 8:33 pm

Importing Total Uninstall monitored installation data from version 6 to 7

I use Total Uninstall to track files added, deleted, and modified and registry changes made to systems running Microsoft Windows when I install new software on the systems or update existing software on the systems. The sofware also provides a capability to transfer software from an old PC to a new PC. I upgraded Total Uninstall on a Windows 10 system from version 6 to the latest version, 7.0.1. When I started version 7, it did not appear to incorporate any of the data regarding software installed with Total Uninstall version 6. In the Documentation area of the website, I saw upgrade instructions to "Import the monitored programs into version 6" that show how one can import data for recorded installations from versions prior to version 6 into version 6 by selecting "File" then "Import." But I didn't see any "Import" option for version 7.0.1. After checking the menu options, though, I found that if I clicked on "Modules" from the menu bar at the top of the Total Uninstall window and then selected "Monitored Programs," that an "Import" option was then visible under the "File" option on the menu bar. When I clicked on "Import" all of my prior monitored installations appeared beneath "Monitored programs."

Total Uninstall stores the data for programs installed under its monitoring in .tun files. The data for version 6 is placed in C:\ProgramData\Martau\Total Uninstall 6\Monitored Programs while the data for version 7 is placed in C:\ProgramData\Martau\Total Uninstall 7\Monitored Programs. After I imported the data from version 6 into version 7, I saw that a host of .tun files now appeared in the version 7 Monitored Programs directory with "IMPORTED@" prepended to the file names, e.g., IMPORTED@SpeedFan 4.52.tun for the SpeedFan 4.52.tun file in the version 6 Monitored Programs directory.

[/os/windows/utilities/sysmgmt] permanent link

Mon, Jan 03, 2022 10:03 pm

Running an application under another account on a Windows system with runas

If you are logged into a system running the Microsoft Windows operating system and wish to run an application, e.g., Microsoft Outlook, under another account other than the one you are currently logged in under without switching to that other account, you can run the application as the other user using the runas command from a command prompt. If you don't know where the application is located on the system, you can find its location from a command prompt by changing the directory to the root directory of the drive where applications are stored, which is typically drive C:, then use the /s option of the dir command to search all subdirectories for the program, e.g., outlook.exe, which is the executable file for Microsoft Outlook.

C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office>cd \

C:\>dir /s outlook.exe
 Volume in drive C has no label.
 Volume Serial Number is 9420-A68C

 Directory of C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Office\Office14

03/16/2021  12:41 AM        15,794,840 OUTLOOK.EXE
               1 File(s)     15,794,840 bytes

 Directory of C:\Windows\Installer\$PatchCache$\Managed\00004109D30000000000000000F01FEC\14.0.4763

03/23/2010  12:57 PM        15,889,248 OUTLOOK.EXE
               1 File(s)     15,889,248 bytes

     Total Files Listed:
               2 File(s)     31,684,088 bytes
               0 Dir(s)   3,328,741,376 bytes free


In the example above, the program is located in the C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Office\Office14 directory, so I can start the application as the user jdoe in the Windows domain Mordor with the command below (enclose the directory path and application name in double quotes if there are spaces in the directory path):

C:\>runas /user:mordor\jdoe "C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Office\Office14\Outlook.exe"
Enter the password for mordor\jdoe:
Attempting to start C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Office\Office14\Outlook.exe as user "mordor\jdoe" ...


If the account under which I wanted to run Outlook is not in a Windows domain, but is, instead, an account on the same computer, I could omit the domain specification and just use /user:jdoe. You can also use the format user@domain, e.g., jdoe@mordor.lan, instead of the format domainname\username. To run a program as another user, you will need to know the password for the other account. In this case, the graphical user interface (GUI) for Outlook will open with the email, calendar entries, tasks, and contacts for the domain jdoe account once the password for that account is provided.

[/os/windows/commands] permanent link

Sat, Jan 01, 2022 10:33 pm

Setting the date and time on a Cisco switch

When I logged into an old Cisco 2950 network switch today and checked the time on the switch, I found the date was July 29, 1993 rather than January 1, 2022.

Hoggle>show clock
*23:47:16.884 UTC Thu Jul 29 1993

A show clock detail command revealed there was no time source set for the switch.

Hoggle>show clock detail
*23:49:39.464 UTC Thu Jul 29 1993
No time source

To set the time, I turned on the ability to enter privileged commands with the enable command.


I set the date and time to the current Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) values with the clock set command. You can find the current UTC time at Current UTC, Time Zone (Coordinated Universal Time).

Hoggle#clock set 02:47:10 jan 2 2022
Hoggle#show clock
02:47:20.163 UTC Sun Jan 2 2022

The format of the command is clock set [hh:mm:ss] [month] [day] [year] with the following permissible values:

  1. hh:mm:ss - Specifies the current time in hours in military format, aka 24-hour clock format, minutes, and seconds. So the value for hours can range from 0 to 23 while the values for minutes and seconds can range from 0 to 59.
  2. month - Specifies the current month using the first three letters of the month name. The range is from Jan (January) to Dec (December).
  3. day - Specifies the current day of the month from 1 to 31
  4. year - Specifies the current year as a 4-digit year. The range is from 2000 up to 2037.

You may prefer to have the time displayed in your local time. This switch is in the Eastern Time Zone of the United States (you can see the current time for U.S. time zones at UNITED STATES TIME ZONES), so the local time is currently 5 hours behind UTC time. To display the time in the local time zone, I entered the configure terminal command to enter the Global Configuration context and then specified the timezone as EST and indicated it is minus 5 hours from UTC time.

Hoggle#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line.  End with CNTL/Z.
Hoggle(config)#clock timezone EST -5

The format for the command is clock timezone [zone] [hours-offset] [minutes-offset]. The options for the command are as follows:

  1. zone - The acronym of the time zone, which can be up to four characters in length.
  2. hours-offset - The hours difference from UTC. The range is from -12 to +13.
  3. minutes-offset - (Optional) The minutes difference from UTC. The range is from 0 to 59.

You can exit the Global Configuration context with Ctrl-Z. If you then issue the show clock command you should see the date and time matching your local time.

Hoggle#show clock
22:17:01.987 EST Sat Jan 1 2022

[/hardware/network/switch/cisco] permanent link

Fri, Dec 17, 2021 9:04 pm

Galatia SIL font for Ancient Greek

If you are writing in Ancient Greek in an application such as Microsoft Word and wish to have an inverted breve, ̑, instead of a tilde, ~, above a vowel for the cirumflex accent for the perispomenon or properispomenon of words, the Galatia SIL font will allow you to do so as shown below for the letter upsilon in the Windows Character Map program.

Character Map - 
Galatia SIL Upsilon

The font can be downloaded from Galatia SIL or from this site ( After extracting the files, on a Microsoft Windows system you can right-click on the two TrueType font files, GalSILB and GalSILR, and choose "Install for all users." The font is available under the SIL Open Font License (OFL), which is a "a free, libre and open source license specifically designed for fonts and related software."

[/fonts/greek] permanent link

Wed, Nov 17, 2021 9:56 pm

Automatically resizing an image for mobile devices

I created this domain in April of 1997, a time when mobile device usage was not common. HTML 3 was the version of the HyperText Markup Lanugage (HTML) in usage then with HTML 4.0 not being pubished as a W3C Recommendation until December of that year. In the past, I used to add material to the site far more frequently. I haven't added much to the site in the last few years and haven't made any significant changes to the site for many years. Consequently, visitors viewing pages with large images from a mobile device would see only the leftmost portion of those images and would need to scroll right if they were using a mobile device such as a phone. I finally added a few lines to the site's style.css Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) file today to have images be scaled down to fit the screens of mobile devices. The lines I added are those below:
img {
  max-width: 100%;
  height: auto;

Those lines tell browsers that the maximum width of an image when it is displayed within the user's browser shoud be no wider than the page's width as it is displayed within that browser on that device. I added the "height: auto;" to ensure that when images are resized that the height is also adjusted to maintain the heighth to width ration of the original image. Otherwise, some images might be distorted so that the image height would be much greater in relation to its width than in the original image. With the auto setting, the height to width balance remains such that the image fits within the displaye page without appearing elongated.

[/network/web/html/css] permanent link

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