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Mon, Apr 15, 2024 9:01 pm

Calculating a hash value for a file with Get-FileHash

The PowerShell cmdlet Get-FileHash provides a cryptographic hash function that will allow you to determine a hash value of a file on a Microsoft Windows system. By default, the cmdlet uses the SHA-256 hash function, but you can specify other functions, such as MD5, using the -Algorithm parameter. You can change the output to a list format by piping the output of the cmdlet to Format-List.

PS C:\users\public\downloads> Get-FileHash ".\rel_x64_Xming-7-7-1-1-setup.exe"

Algorithm       Hash                                                                   Path
---------       ----                                                                   ----
SHA256          B7B4C0A191E315686A2481DCC8BBB27D6D7A156FBF689768E48CF08207B86560       C:\users\public\downloads\rel...


PS C:\users\public\downloads> Get-FileHash ".\rel_x64_Xming-7-7-1-1-setup.exe" | Format-List


Algorithm : SHA256
Hash      : B7B4C0A191E315686A2481DCC8BBB27D6D7A156FBF689768E48CF08207B86560
Path      : C:\users\public\downloads\rel_x64_Xming-7-7-1-1-setup.exe



PS C:\users\public\downloads> Get-FileHash -Algorithm MD5 ".\rel_x64_Xming-7-7-1-1-setup.exe"

Algorithm       Hash                                                                   Path
---------       ----                                                                   ----
MD5             BA200636A596A84E0877901CE89D1C2E                                       C:\users\public\downloads\rel...


PS C:\users\public\downloads>

[ More Info ]

[/os/windows/PowerShell] permanent link

Sun, Apr 14, 2024 9:21 pm

NortonLifeLock Scam

Earlier this week, a user forwarded me an email she received purporting to be a notification regarding an automatic renewal of a subscription to "Norton Life-Lock" wondering if it was legitimate and she would be charged $399 for the product.

Norton LifeLock scam

The message included the following text:

This email confirms that your subscription has been renewed for another 1 year with Norton Life-Lock for $399.00 on April 11th,2024.

This subscription will Auto-Renew every year unless you turn it OFF. No later than 24 hour before the end of the subscription period.

To cancel this subscription, Call: +1(844)962-1087

An online search of the 844-962-1087 number showed it is not a number associated with Norton LifeLock, a clear indication that the email was a scam where the scammer attempts to get people to call a number to cancel an expensive "subscription" for a well-known product or company. I assume those who call the number will be asked to provide their credit or debit card information, so someone pretending to be a customer service representative for the company can supposedly look up the account information to "cancel" the subscription. If credit card information is provided, the scammer can then use it for fraudulent charges or sell the information to others. Another indicator that a message such as this is fraudulent is poor English. E.g., "...unless you turn if OFF. No later than 24 hour before the end of the subscription period." Proper English would be "...unless you turn it OFF no later than 24 hours before the end of the subscription period." I.e., there should not be a period before "No later" and "hours" should be used rather than "hour." Another indication that the email is a fraud attempt in this case is that the sender hyphenated the product name, i.e., "Life-Lock" whereas if you go to the Norton website and look at their consumer products or visit the NortonLifeLock website, you can see that the name of the product is listed as "LifeLock" not "Life-Lock." The Wikipedia LifeLock page also shows the product name is not hyphenated. Such phishing emails purporting to be notifications of upcoming charges for NortonLifeLock have been prevalent for years — the NortonLifeLock website has a January 11, 2022 article " Keep an eye out for Norton email scams" warning people about such attempts and showing similar scam messages regarding their product.

Unfortunately, such scams can deceive enough people to make sending such messages profitable for scammers. People anxious to avoid a charge of several hundred dollars for a product they may not even be using may call the number and provide credit/debit card or banking information that the scammer may use to fraudulently charge their credit or debit card or steal money from a banking account.

[/security/phishing] permanent link

Thu, Apr 04, 2024 10:14 pm

Casting a video stored on a Windows PC to an LG TV

If you have a movie, or other video, located on a PC running Microsoft Windows and wish to view the movie on your LG Electronics TV, which runs the LG webOS operating system, if they are on the same local area network (LAN), you can "cast" the video to the TV.

If the LG TV is visible to other devices on the network, such as the PC, you should see it within "Media Devices" under "Network" in the Windows File Explorer.

Windows network - LG TV

If you have an MPEG-4 (.mp4) or Audio Video Interleave (.avi) file on the PC, you can right-click on video file, then choose "Show more options," and then choose "Cast to Device" at which point you should see the LG TV as a device to which you can stream the video.

[ More Info ]

[/video/lgtv] permanent link

Tue, Apr 02, 2024 8:45 pm

Blocking email from an envelope "from" address with Sendmail

For a mail server running Sendmail email server software, if you wish to block email from a particular "from" address to any email address on the server, you can include the address you wish to block in the /etc/mail/access file. E.g., if you wished to block email from the address spammer@example.com, you can include the following line in that file:

# Block envelope "from" address of spammers
spammer@example.com                     REJECT

Any line beginning with a # is treated as a comment, so the first line above isn't needed, but adding a comment line may help you recognize why the reject statement is in the file. After you have added the line, you need to regenerate the /etc/mail/access.db file, or create a new one if there isn't already one present, using the command shown below (you don't need to restart sendmail):

# makemap hash /etc/mail/access </etc/mail/access
#

This will only work if you have a FEATURE(`access_db')dnl line in /etc/mail/sendmail.mc. E.g., a line like the one below:

FEATURE(`access_db', `hash -T<TMPF> -o /etc/mail/access.db')dnl

If you don't have such a line, you will need to add it. If the line begins with dnl, you will need to remove the dnl at the beginning of the line, since that "comments out" the line.

[ More Info ]

[/network/email/sendmail] permanent link

Mon, Apr 01, 2024 10:10 pm

Determining the default gateway and subnet mask from a Windows command prompt

From a command prompt on a Microsoft Windows system, you can obtain details on the network configuration by issuing the command ipconfig or ipconfig /all, if you wish to see more details. If you are only interested in a specific value or values, though, you can pipe the output of the command to the findstr command. If you wish to see multiple values, e.g., the subnet mask and the default gateway address, you can put text associated with both values, separated by a space, within double quotes. Findstr will treat the space between strings as instructing it to perform a logical OR operation, i.e., it will find any lines that contain either of the strings. Findstr uses a case sensitive search, so you need to either match the case of the text or use the /i option with findstr, which instructs it to ignore the case of text and perform a case insensitive search.

C:\>ipconfig | findstr "Mask Gateway"
   Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.255.224
   Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.1.1

C:\>ipconfig | findstr "mask gateway"

C:\>ipconfig /all | findstr /i "mask gateway"
   Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.255.224
   Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.1.1

C:\>

You can also use a Windows Management Instrumentation Command-line (WMIC) command to obtain the same information.

C:\>wmic nicconfig get defaultIPGateway, IPSubnet
DefaultIPGateway  IPSubnet

{"192.168.1.1"}   {"255.255.255.224", "64"}












C:\>

[/os/windows/commands] permanent link

Sun, Mar 31, 2024 8:11 pm

Configuring PuTTY for X forwarding

The X Window System, aka X11 or simply X, provides a mechanism that allows you to have the graphical user interface (GUI) for an application running on a remote system to be displayed on the system on which you are running X server software. For systems running a Microsoft Windows operating system, you can use the free PuTTY program to establish a Secure Shell (SSH) connection to an SSH server and configure PuTTY to allow X forwarding so that you can run programs on the SSH server, but have their GUI displayed on the Microsoft Windows system on which you are running PuTTY.

[ More Info ]

[/os/windows/network/ssh/putty] permanent link

Sun, Mar 24, 2024 9:29 pm

Downloading CNN Videos with VideoProc Converter AI

If you wish to download videos posted on the Cable News Network (CNN) website, you can do so with VideoProc Converter AI from Digiary Software, Inc. The program is a commercial product, but you can download a free trial version. To download a CNN video, or videos from other sites, such as YouTube, take the following steps...

[ More Info ]

[/video] permanent link

Fri, Mar 22, 2024 9:44 pm

PowerShell Get-Content equivalents to Linux head and tail commands

The Windows PowerShell Get-Content cmdlet can provide the equivalent to the Unix/Linux head and tail commands. E.g., suppose a file named somefile.txt contains the following ten lines:
line 1
line 2
line 3
line 4
line 5
line 6
line 7
line 8
line 9
line 10

The following Get-Content commands could be used to obtain the first 5 and the last 5 lines in the file.

PS C:\Users\Arnold\Documents> Get-Content somefile.txt -Head 5
line 1
line 2
line 3
line 4
line 5
PS C:\Users\Arnold\Documents> Get-Content somefile.txt -Tail 5
line 6
line 7
line 8
line 9
line 10
PS C:\Users\Arnold\Documents> Get-Content somefile.txt -TotalCount 5
line 1
line 2
line 3
line 4
line 5
C:\Users\Arnold\Documents>

The TotalCount parameter can function like the Head parameter and will return the first x number of lines specified with x being 5 in the example above. You can also use it to obtain a specific line, though. E.g., if you wished to see the 7th line in the file, you could use the command below.

PS C:\Users\Arnold\Documents> (Get-Content Somefile.txt -TotalCount 7)[-1]
line 7
PS C:\Users\Arnold\Documents>

By default the delimiter for lines is the newline, aka end-of-line character, \n, but you can change that with the -Delimiter parameter.

References:

  1. Get-Content
    Microsoft Learn

[/os/windows/PowerShell] permanent link

Thu, Mar 21, 2024 9:06 pm

Determining Excel's autosave value from the Windows registry

Microsoft Excel provides an autorecover feature that allows you to recover updates to spreadsheets or other files that were open in Excel even if changes were made since the last time the file was saved. Excel will automatically save files at a specified time interval so that if Excel crashes or the system crashes or loses power, you can recover the latest version of the file, or at least the file as it was the last time Excel automatically saved it. For the Office 365 version of Excel, you can find the autosave interval by clicking on File in Excel then selecting More, then Options, and then Save. The default value is 10 minutes but you can have Excel save more or less frequently.

Excel Save Options

You can also find the value by checking the Windows Registry, which you can view or edit by using the Registry Editor program that comes with Microsoft Windows. You can find the value by navigating to HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Office\16.0\Excel\Options and checking the value for AutoRecoverTime.

[ More Info ]

[/os/windows/registry] permanent link

Wed, Mar 20, 2024 9:39 pm

Location of Microsoft Excel recovery files

Microsft Excel can automatically save updates to spreadsheets. If Excel, or the system, crashes, when you reopen Excel you will see a Document Recovery pane on the left side of the Excel window with the message "Excel has recovered the following files. Save the ones you wish to keep."

Excel Document Recovery - Collectorz

Some of the documents listed may have been saved by the user without any subsequent changes being made and will have "Version created last time the user saved the file" beneath the file name as shown above.

[ More Info ]

[/software/office/excel] permanent link

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