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Mon, Mar 22, 2010 9:09 pm

FTP Server on Mac OS X

To enable an FTP server on a Mac OS X system, take the following steps:
  1. Click on the Apple menu in the upper left-hand corner of the menu bar.
  2. Select System Preferences.
  3. Click on File Sharing in the services list at the left side of the window. If it is grayed out, click on the lock icon at the bottom of the window to unlock the settings, so that you can make changes. The File Sharing status indicator will go from "Off" to "On".
  4. Click on the Options button.
  5. Choose the "Share files and folders using FTP" option.
  6. Choose the account or accounts for which you wish to allow FTP access.
  7. Click on Done.

[/os/os-x] permanent link

Sun, Mar 21, 2010 2:52 pm


Java is a programming language and computing platform released by Sun Microsystems in 1995. It is the underlying technology that powers programs including utilities, games, and business applications. Java runs on more than 850 million personal computers worldwide, and on billions of devices worldwide, including mobile and TV devices. Java Runtime Environment (JRE) software can be downloaded from Java Downloads for All Operating Systems. For Microsoft Windows systems, you can choose from a 32-bit or a 64-bit versions. For a silent install, you can use jre-6u18-windows-i586-s.exe /quiet /norestart.

After installation, you will see an "Java(TM) 6 Update 18" entry under "Uninstall or change a program", corresponding to the registry entry for HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Uninstall\{26A24AE4-039D-4CA4-87B4-2F83216018FF}\DisplayName. The uninstall string is MsiExec.exe /X{26A24AE4-039D-4CA4-87B4-2F83216018FF}, corresponding to the registry entry for HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Uninstall\{26A24AE4-039D-4CA4-87B4-2F83216018FF}\UninstallString. For a quiet uninstall, you can use MsiExec.exe /X{26A24AE4-039D-4CA4-87B4-2F83216018FF} /q.

The WPKG package I used is shown below:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>


<!-- Version 6 Update 18 - offline (32-bit) version -->	

   name="Java Runtime Environment (JRE)"
<check type="uninstall" condition="exists" path="Java(TM) 6 Update 18" />
<install cmd='%SOFTWARE%\java\jre-6u18-windows-i586-s.exe /quiet /norestart' />

<remove cmd='MsiExec.exe /X{26A24AE4-039D-4CA4-87B4-2F83216018FF} /q'/>



If you use 32-bit and 64-bit browsers interchangeably, you will need to install both 32-bit and 64-bit Java in order to have the Java plug-in for both browsers.

The software will be installed to C:\Program Files\Java\jre6\ by default. After installing Java, restart your browser and verify Java has been installed correctly (note: it may work even without restarting your browser). You can also go to How do I test whether Java is working on my computer? to test the Java installation.

[/os/windows/software/wpkg] permanent link

Sun, Mar 21, 2010 11:23 am

Embedding Userid and Password in a URL

With versions of Internet Explorer from 3.0 to 6.0, the following syntax for HTTP or HTTPS URLs was supported:


Using the syntax of http:// or https:// followed by username:Password@ and then the URL, you could supply a username and password in the address bar. This could be useful in cases where you had to script access to a webpage or file download from a password protected directory on a website. Using this technique you could use a command in a batch file to gain access to the protected resource.

However, after version 6.0 of Internet Explorer, Microsoft disabled this capability. The rationale for disabling the capability is explained at Internet Explorer does not support user names and passwords in Web site addresses (HTTP or HTTPS URLs). Microsoft states there that the capability was disabled, because it could be used by a malicious person to mislead someone into thinking he was going to a trusted side when in actuality he would be directed to another site.

E.g., other information, besides a username and password, could be placed before the "@", for example someone could use A user might only notice the in the address bar, whereas the URL would actually be taking the user to In this case, Internet Explorer 6 Service Pack 1 (SP1) and Internet Explorer 6 for Microsoft Windows Server 2003 only display "" in the address bar. However, earlier versions of Internet Explorer display "" in the address bar, but users might think they were going to, whereas they would actually be taken to

If you want later versions of Internet Explorer to retain the behavior of prior versions, you can disable the new default behavior in Windows Explorer and Internet Explorer. To do so, create iexplore.exe and explorer.exe DWORD values in one of the following registry keys and set their value data to 0.

On the support webpage, Microsoft states that, if users attempt to use the previously supported syntax with later versions of Internet Explorer, users will see a webpage that has the title "Invalid syntax error". When I used the technique to try to access a protected file on a site using Internet Explorer 8.0 on a Windows 7 system, I received a message stating "Windows cannot find" followed by the URL and then "Check the spelling and try again."

The syntax of still worked on the same system with Firefox 3.6


  1. Internet Explorer does not support user names and passwords in Web site addresses (HTTP or HTTPS URLs)
    Article ID: 834489
    Last Review: November 15, 2007
    Revision: 11.4
    Microsoft Support

[/network/web/browser/ie] permanent link

Fri, Mar 19, 2010 3:15 pm

Securely Deleting a File from a Mac OS X System

If you just use the rm command or drag a file to the trash on a Mac OS X system, then it is possible for a technically knowledgeable person to recover the information in that file. A normal delete removes what is essentially a pointer to where the file is stored on a disk drive, but doesn't overwrite the areas on the disk where the file is stored. A normal file deletion is sort of like removing an entry from a book's table of contents and index; someone could read the entire book and still obtain the information to which the entry pointed.

There is a secure way to delete the contents of a file, though, by overwriting the areas on the disk where the file is stored. If you overwrite the data on the areas with new data the old data is no longer accessible.

Note: if you only overwrite the areas occupied by the file once, it is still possible for someone to recover the contents of the file, but then it reqires not just technical knowledge, but specialized equipment. E.g. a company specializing in data recovery or a government agency with skilled forensics personnel and specialized equipment might still be able to recover the information from traces of the magnetic signals left by the old data, but for most purposes the data can be considered unrecoverable. However, if the data is overwritten multiple times, it becomes unrecoverable even with such equipment.

There is a utility that comes with the Mac OS X operating system that will securely overwrite a file. That utility is srm, which will overwrite a file multiple times making it unrecoverable. The utility is run from a shell prompt, which you can obtain by using the Finder and going to Applications, Utilities, and then double-clicking on Terminal. The syntax for the command is srm [OPTION]... FILE..., e.g. srm somefile.doc.

You can obtain further information on the utility by opening a terminal window on a Mac OS X system and typing man srm.

       srm - securely remove files or directories

       srm [OPTION]... FILE...

       srm  removes each specified file by overwriting, renaming, and truncat-
       ing it before unlinking. This prevents other people from undeleting  or
       recovering any information about the file from the command line.

       srm,  like  every  program  that  uses the getopt function to parse its
       arguments, lets you use the -- option to indicate  that  all  following
       arguments are non-options.  To remove a file called '-f' in the current
       directory, you could type either "srm -- -f" or "srm ./-f".

       -d, --directory
              ignored (for compatibility with rm(1))

       -f, --force
              ignore nonexistent files, never prompt

       -i, --interactive
              prompt before any removal

       -r, -R, --recursive
              remove the contents of directories recursively

       -s, --simple
              only overwrite with a single pass of random data

       -m, --medium
              overwrite the file with 7 US DoD compliant passes  (0xF6,  0x00,
              0xFF, random, 0x00, 0xFF, random)

       -z, --zero
              after overwriting, zero blocks used by file

       -n, --nounlink
              overwrite file, but do not rename or unlink it

       -v, --verbose
              explain what is being done

       --help display this help and exit

              output version information and exit

       srm can not remove write protected files owned by another user, regard-
       less of the permissions on the directory containing the file.

       The -s option overrides the -m option, if both are present.  If neither
       is specified, the 35-pass Gutmann algorithm is used.

       Development  and  discussion  of  srm is carried out at <http://source->,  which  is   also   accessible   via


  1. Secure File Delete on Mac OS X
    Date: August 16, 2007
    Exxamine's Weblog

[/os/os-x] permanent link

Fri, Mar 19, 2010 12:55 pm

Obtaining an IP Address via DHCP

If a Knoppix system doesn't have an IP address assigned to an Ethernet interface, you can obtain one by downing the interface with ifdown eth0 and then brining it back up with ifup eth0, which will cause the system to try to obtain an address via DHCP.

[/os/unix/linux/knoppix] permanent link

Fri, Mar 19, 2010 12:07 pm

Mounting a Windows Hibernated Drive under Knoppix

After shutting down a Windows Vista laptop into hibernation mode, I wanted to copy the hibernation file, hiberfil.sys from the Windows Vista laptop's hard disk drive to an external USB drive to analyze it on another system. I removed the drive from the laptop and put it into a Thermaltake Black Widow hard dirve eSATA + USB Docking Station, which I attached the system I would use for the backup. I was unable to boot that system from a BartPE boot disc, so I booted the system instead from a Knoppix Linux Live CD. However, when I connected the docking station with the laptop drive in it to the system, I received the message below:

Error - Konqueror
Windows is hibernated, won't mount.

Failed to mount '/dev/sdb1': Operation not permitted

The NTFS partition is hibernated. Please resume WIndows and turned it

off properly, so mounting could be done safely.



I only needed to mount the drive in read-only mode to copy hiberfil.sys from it, so I obtained a command prompt and opened a Bash shell, switched to the root account and mounted the device in read-only mode. I had another external USB drive attached, which was to hold the backup, as /dev/sda1. The laptop drive had two partitions on it: the Windows Vista partition, which was /dev/sdb1 and a recovery partition, which was /dev/sdb2.

knoppix@Knoppix:~$ sudo bash
root@Knoppix:~# mount -r /dev/sdb1 /media/sdb1

After copying hiberfil.sys from the laptop drive to the other external USB drive, I unmounted the laptop drive.

root@Knoppix:~# umount /dev/sdb2
root@Knoppix:~# umount /dev/sdb1

I checked the contents of the backup copy of hiberfil.sys with the od command. I saw that the first 4 bytes of the file were "HIBR", which indicates the system containing the file was last shutdown into hibernate mode rather than to a normal shutdown state. To view just the first 8 bytes of the file with od, you can use od -a -N 8.

root@Knoppix:~# od -a -N 8 /mnt/hdd/hiberfil.sys
0000000   w   a   k   e ht nul nul nul


  1. Hibernation (computing)
    Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  2. Mounting a Hibernated Drive
    Date: November 27, 2007
    MoonPoint Support

[/os/unix/linux/knoppix] permanent link

Mon, Mar 15, 2010 8:36 pm

Windows NT Backup Restore Utility for Windows 7 and for Windows Server 2008 R2

If you have a backup made with the backup utility, NTBackup, that comes with Windows XP, but want to restore files from the backup on a Windows 7 system you have to download the Windows NT Backup Restore Utility for Windows 7 and for Windows Server 2008 R2 from Microsoft. The Windows NT Removable Storage Manager (RSM) is no longer included in Windows 7 or in Windows Server 2008 R2, but this utility will allow you to restore files in a Windows .bkf backup file made with the backup utility on Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 to computers that are running Windows 7 and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2.

There are versions of the Update for Windows 7 (KB974674) utility for 32-bit and 64-bit versions of Windows 7 as well as for all supported x64-based versions of Windows Server 2008 R2 and all supported IA-64-based versions of Windows Server 2008 R2.

The utility is distributed as an .MSU file, e.g. Windows6.1-KB974674-x86.msu for the 32-bit version for Windows XP. An .msu file is a Microsoft Update Stanalone Package file.


  1. Windows NT Backup - Restore in Win 7?
    Date: June 5, 2009
    Microsoft TechNet: Resources for IT Professionals
  2. Description of the Windows NT Backup Restore Utility for Windows 7 and for Windows Server 2008 R2 Article ID: 974674
    Last Review: January 27, 2010
    Revision: 2.0
    Microsoft Support

[/os/windows/win7/Backup] permanent link

Sun, Mar 14, 2010 3:22 pm

Changing the Location of the Data File for Sierra Hallmark Studio Deluxe

By default, the data file used to store calendar events for Sierra Hallmark Studio Deluxe 1.0 is located in the directory c:\program files\Sierra\CardStudio\Data. The file that holds the event data is PLANR32.DAT. You will also see backpage.cc1 and PLANR32.BAK in the same directory. The location of the file is stored in the Windows registry at HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Sierra OnLine\Hallmark Card Studio\Deluxe\1\Paths\DataPath.
c:\>reg query "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Sierra OnLine\Hallmark Card Studio\De
luxe\1\Paths" /v DataPath

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Sierra OnLine\Hallmark Card Studio\Deluxe\1\Paths
    DataPath    REG_SZ    c:\program files\Sierra\CardStudio\Data

You can change the location by editing the registry with regedit or by using the reg add command. E.g., if you wanted to have Card Studio Deluxe store events at a shared network location where multiple computers running the software could use the same data, you could alter the registry to point to that location. E.g., to point to a shared directory \\Server\Sierra\CardStudio\Data, you could use the following:

c:\>reg add "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Sierra OnLine\Hallmark Card Studio\Delu
xe\1\Paths" /v DataPath /t REG_SZ /d \\Server\Sierra\CardStudio\Data /f
The operation completed successfully.


  1. Sierra's Hallmark Card Studio Deluxe Data Location
    MoonPoint Support

[/os/windows/software/graphics/sierra] permanent link

Sun, Mar 14, 2010 12:57 pm

DC++ 0.75 Silent Install

DC++ is an open source client for Windows for the Direct Connect / Advanced Direct Connect network.

Direct Connect allows you to share files over the Internet without restrictions or limits. The client is completely free of advertisements and has a nice, easy to use interface. Firewall and router support is integrated and it is easy and convenient to use functionality like multi-hub connections, auto-connections and resuming of downloads.

The software is licensed under GNU GPL 2.

DCPlusPlus 0.75 uses the Nullsoft Install System (NSIS) v2.31. Since it uses NSIS, you can perform a silent installation by using the /S option. It will install in C:\Program Files\DC++ by default, but you can perform a silent install and still select the destination location by using the /D=directory option. E.g., to install the software in C:\Program Files\P2P\DC++, you could use the following:

DCPlusPlus-0.75.exe /S /D=%PROGRAMFILES%\P2P\DC++

Note: you have to use a capital "S" for the silent installation and the /D must appear at the end of the line. Also, don't use quotes even if the directory path has spaces in it, e.g., if you aren't using the variable %PROGRAMFILES%, which equates to C:\Program Files on most systems (you can see its value by issuing the command echo %PROGRAMFILES% at a command line). And, if you don't use %PROGRAMFILES%, you need to use the drive location also, e.g., C:\Program Files. Any interventing directories that don't exist will be created.

When you first run DC++ after the installation, you may be prompted to allow DC++ network communications.

DC++ Firewall Access

You can uninstall the software by running uninstall.exe from the directory where you installed the software, e.g. %PROGRAMFILES%\P2P\DC++\uninstall.exe /S. You can use the /S for a silent uninstall, but you will still see a window asking "Also remove queue and settings?"

DC++ Remove Queue and Settings

A package file for a silent install using WPKG, is shown below:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

   <check type="uninstall" condition="exists" path="DC++ 0.750"/>
   <install cmd='%SOFTWARE%\P2P\DCPlusPlus-0.75.exe /S /D=%PROGRAMFILES%\P2P\DC++"'/>
   <remove cmd='"%PROGRAMFILES%\P2P\DC++\uninstall.exe" /S'/>



  1. DC++
  2. Direct Connect (file sharing)
    Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  3. Advanced Direct Connect network
    Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  4. Nullsoft Scriptable Install System
    Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  5. WPKG | Open Source Software Deployment and Distribution

[/os/windows/software/wpkg] permanent link

Sat, Mar 13, 2010 5:43 pm

Firefox and SQLite

Starting in Firefox 3, bookmarks and browsing history are stored in the places.sqlite file, located in the Firefox profile folder. On a Windows 7 system, the file will be in a directory similar to C:\Users\AcctName\AppData\Roaming\Mozilla\Firefox\Profiles\q3wdrb9w.default. AcctName will be the name for the particular account. The \q3wdrb9w.default is a specific example; you would see a sequence of 8 numbers and letters that is unique to a particular profile on that system followed by .default. Note: you will have to turn on the display of hidden files and folders to see the directory (see Show hidden files for instructions on how to do this for Windows 7).

Places.sqlite is used in Firefox 3 instead of the older bookmarks.html and history.dat files (the older files are left in the profile folder for backward compatibility).

I opened a places.sqlite file with SQLite. Note: Firefox must be closed when you try opening the file or you will get the error message "Error: database is locked".

C:\Users\Administrator\Downloads>sqlite3 C:\Users\Administrator\AppData\Roaming\
SQLite version 3.6.23
Enter ".help" for instructions
Enter SQL statements terminated with a ";"

I then used .tables to see what tables were in it.

sqlite> .tables
moz_anno_attributes  moz_favicons         moz_keywords
moz_annos            moz_historyvisits    moz_places
moz_bookmarks        moz_inputhistory
moz_bookmarks_roots  moz_items_annos

The places.sqlite file contains the following tables:

You can see what the columns are in a table using the .schema command, so I can use .schema moz_bookmarks for further information about the "bookmarks" table.

sqlite> .schema moz_bookmarks
EFAULT NULL, parent INTEGER, position INTEGER, title LONGVARCHAR, keyword_id INT
EGER, folder_type TEXT, dateAdded INTEGER, lastModified INTEGER);
CREATE INDEX moz_bookmarks_itemindex ON moz_bookmarks (fk, type);
CREATE INDEX moz_bookmarks_itemlastmodifiedindex ON moz_bookmarks (fk, lastModif
CREATE INDEX moz_bookmarks_parentindex ON moz_bookmarks (parent, position);
CREATE TRIGGER moz_bookmarks_beforedelete_v1_trigger BEFORE DELETE ON moz_bookma
RE id = OLD.keyword_id AND NOT EXISTS ( SELECT id FROM moz_bookmarks WHERE keywo
rd_id = OLD.keyword_id AND id <> LIMIT 1 );END;

A diagram of the layout of the tables provides further information as does the The Places database.

I can see that there is a column named "title". So I can view the value for "title" for all entries in the table with select title from moz_bookmarks. Note: you may see a lot of what may appear to be extraneous bookmarks, i.e. webpages not bookmarked by the user. That's because you also see what you would see if you clicked on Bookmarks, Bookmarks Toolbar, Latest Headlines.

You can exit from sqlite with .exit, .quit, or Ctrl-C.

If you prefer a GUI to browse SQLite databases, you can use SQLite Database Browser, which can provide a graphical interface for browsing the databases on a Windows system.

SQLite Databse Browser

To install the program, just unzip the files in the .zip file, once you've downloaded it, to the directory you want to use for it.


  1. SQLite
  2. Locked or damaged places.sqlite
    MozillaZine Knowledge Base
  3. Places.sqlite
    MozillaZine Knowledge Base
  4. The Places database
    Mozilla Developer Center
  5. SQLite Database Browser
  6. Improving Iceweasel Performance
    April 3, 2009
    Zenwalk Support

[/network/web/browser/firefox] permanent link

Sat, Mar 13, 2010 10:15 am

Transferring Files Via the Remote Desktop

If you want to transfer files between your local system and a remote system using the remote desktop software that comes with Windows you can do so via the following procedure (note: this procedure was written for Windows 7, but should be similar for prior versions).
  1. Click on the Start button.
  2. Select All Programs.
  3. Select Accessories.
  4. Select Remote Desktop Connection.
  5. When the Remote Desktop Connection window opens, click on Options.
  6. Click on the Local Resources tab.

    Local resources tab

  7. Click on the More button.
  8. Click on Drives to share all drives. If yo only want to share some local drives, click on the "+" to the left of drives and select only the drives you want to share.

    Selecting drives

  9. Click on OK.
  10. Click on Connect.

If you go to My Computer on the remote system or use Windows Explorer, you should see the drives on the local system from which you connected listed among the drives visible on the remote system.


  1. Transfer files via the Remote Desktop

[/os/windows/software/remote-control/rdp] permanent link

Tue, Mar 09, 2010 10:36 pm

Transferring Winamp 5.572 Info to Another PC

I needed to copy the Winamp settings from my wife's laptop to her desktop system. Both systems are running Windows 7. I found the bookmarks in C:\Users\acctname\AppData\Roaming\Winamp . I also needed to copy her list of online serves, since I had added the Live365 Internet Radio to the list of services - see Adding Live365 to WinAmp's Online Services List, so I copied the contents of the C:\Users\acctname\AppData\Roaming\Winamp\Plugins\ml directory, including subdirectories from one system to the other. Acctname represents the account name under which she logs on.

Note: you need to display hidden files and folders to see the directory - see Show hidden files for instructions on how to do this under Windows 7, if you don't know how to do so.

[/os/windows/software/audio/winamp] permanent link

Tue, Mar 09, 2010 9:47 pm

Winamp Media Player Silent Installation

I wanted to do a silent install on Winamp. When I went to the Winamp website, I found that the latest version available for download was 5.572. The file available for download was winamp5572_full_emusic-7plus_en-us.exe. Winamp, which was developed by Nullsoft, was acquired by AOL, which is bundling eMusic, which I didn't want. At WinampWithoutEMusic, I learned that you can download versions of Winamp without the eMusic add-on by removing the emusic-7plus_ portion of the file name. By using winamp5572_full_en-us.exe, I was able to get the same version without the eMusic add-on. There's similar information at Super Bowl XL, Download Winamp without Emusic.

After downloading it, I examined it with FileAlyzer . I saw "Nullsoft Install System v2.45.1" within the file. Winamp is installed with the Nullsoft Scriptable Install System (NSIS), which is to be expected given that Winamp was developed by Nullsoft.

For a default installation, Winamp will be installed in C:\Program Files\Winamp and Winamp Toolbar will be installed in C:\Program Files\Winamp Toolbar.

A "silent" install can be peformed by using a /S option. Note: it has to be a capital "S", e.g. winamp5572_full_en-us.exe /S. If you use the silent install option, the Winamp Toolbar will be installed by default within Internet Explorer and Firefox. During the installation any open instances of the browsers will be closed automatically. When you reopen the browsers you will see the Winamp toolbar within the browsers.

The Winamp and Winamp Toolbar uninstall strings in the Windows registry for a default installation are at HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Uninstall are shown below:

Winamp"C:\Program Files\Winamp\UninstWA.exe"
Winamp Toolbar"C:\Program Files\Winamp Toolbar\uninstall.exe"

A silent uninstall can be performed for Winamp with "C:\Program Files\Winamp\UninstWA.exe". A silent uninstall can be performed for the toolbar with "C:\Program Files\Winamp Toolbar\uninstall.exe" /S. Use a capital "S" for the silent option. Note: a silent uninstall of the Winamp toolbar will close any open browser windows.

One can specify the installation directory with /D=installdirectory I could specify winamp5572_full_en-us.exe /D=C:\Program Files\Audio and Video\Winamp at the command line and the GUI installation method would show the directory I picked. I had to put the C: there for that to occur, though. For a silent install, I could use the following to specify the location:

winamp5572_full_en-us.exe /S /D=C:\Program Files\Audio and Video\Winamp\

Again, I needed to have the C:\ at the beginning of the directory location. Also, don't use quotes even if the directory path has spaces in it and the /D option has to be the last option on the line.

Unfortunately, the toolbar is still installed and goes into its default location of C:\Program Files\Winamp Toolbar. But I remove it with "C:\Program Files\Winamp Toolbar\uninstall.exe" /S. Unfortunately, that only removes the toolbar from Internet Explorer and I have to manually remove it from Firefox.


  1. WinampWithoutEMusic
    Last modified: February 13, 2010
    Jurand Nogiec
  2. Super Bowl XL, Download Winamp without Emusic
    Date: February 6, 2006
  3. Nullsoft Scriptable Install System
    Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  4. Winamp Media Player 5.56 Installation
    Date: November 24, 2009
    MoonPoint Support

[/os/windows/software/audio/winamp] permanent link

Sat, Mar 06, 2010 6:40 pm

Windows Help Under Windows 7

When I opened MUSHclient on a Windows 7 system, I saw the message "Failed to launch help." A Windows Help and Support window opened stating the following:

The Help for this program was created in Windows Help format, which depends on a feature that isn't included in this version of Windows. However, you can download a program that will allow you to view Help created in the Windows Help format.

At I cannot open Help files that require the Windows Help (WinHlp32.exe) program, Microsoft provides the following information:

On computers that are running Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows Server 2008, or Windows Server 2008 R2, you may be unable to open Help files that require the Windows Help (WinHlp32.exe) program. This article contains information about a download that helps you fix this problem.

Microsoft stopped including the 32-bit Help file viewer in Windows releases beginning with Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008. To support customers who still rely on legacy .hlp files, the Microsoft Download Center provides WinHlp32.exe downloads for Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows Server 2008, and Windows Server 2008 R2.

The version of the program for Windows 7 can be downloaded from Windows Help program (WinHlp32.exe) for Windows 7. That page provides the following overview statement:

Windows Help (WinHlp32.exe) is a Help program that has been included with Microsoft Windows versions starting with the Microsoft Windows 3.1 operating system. However, the Windows Help program has not had a major update for many releases and no longer meets Microsoft's standards. Therefore, starting with the release of Windows Vista and continuing in Windows 7, the Windows Help program will not ship as a feature of Windows. If you want to view 32-bit .hlp files, you must download and install the program (WinHlp32.exe) from the Microsoft Download Center.

There are two versions of the software available, one for 64-bit systems and one for 32-bit systems. The download files are .msu files. You can install the software by just double-clicking on the downloaded file from the Windows Explorer, which will open a Windows Update Standalone Installer window, where you would see the propmpt "Do you want to install the following Windows software update? Update for WIndows (KB917607)". During the installation, winhlp32.exe is placed in %systemroot, e.g. C:\Windows.

For a silent installation, you can use the Windows Update Standalone Installer, wusa.exe, with the /quiet option (quiet mode, no user interaction, reboot as needed). It isn't necessary to reboot after installing Windows Help. You can specify /norestart (when combined with /quiet, installer will NOT initiate reboot. You can see other options by using wusa /?.

The following command performs a silent install for the 32-bit version:

wusa /quiet /norestart Windows6.1-KB917607-x86.msu

To silently uninstall the software, you can use the command below.

wusa Windows6.1-KB917607-x86.msu /uninstall /quiet /norestart

A package file that can be used with WPKG to silently install Windows Help for Windows 7 is shown below. Note: though Windows Help will no longer work after the uninstall, c:\windows\winhlp32.exe isn't actually removed, though other files installed with it, such as c:\windows\system32\ftlx0411.dll are removed. You may have to take ownership of winhlp32.exe to remove it - see Add "Take Ownership" to Explorer Right-Click Menu in Win 7 or Vista, since otherwise only TrustedInstaller has full rights to the file.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>


  name="Windows Help"

  <check type='logical' condition='and'> 
     <!-- The uninstall process doesn't remove winhlp32.exe, but does remove
     ftlx0411.dll -->  
     <check type="file" condition="exists" 
      path="%SystemRoot%\system32\ftlx0411.dll" />
     <check type="file" condition="exists" 
      path="%SystemRoot%\winhlp32.exe" />
  <install cmd='wusa %SOFTWARE%\utilities\miscellaneous\Windows6.1-KB917607-x86.msu /quiet /norestart ' />
  <remove cmd='wusa %SOFTWARE%\utilities\miscellaneous\Windows6.1-KB917607-x86.msu /uninstall /quiet /norestart' />
  <upgrade cmd='' />




  1. I cannot open Help files that require the Windows Help (WinHlp32.exe) program
    Article ID: 917607
    Last Review: October 27, 2009
    Revision: 20.3
    Microsoft Support
  2. Windows Help program (WinHlp32.exe) for Windows 7
    Version: 1.0
    Date Published: 10/14/2009
    Microsoft Corporation
  3. Is it possible to silently run the Vista installation package for MSI 4.5?
    Windows Installer Team Blog
  4. silent installation paramters for Windows6.1-KB958559-x64.msu
    Date: July 7, 2009
    Microsoft TechNet: Resources for IT Professionals
  5. Permission from Trusted installer!
    Date: May 18, 2009
    Mcirsoft TechNet: Resources for IT Professionals
  6. Add "Take Ownership" to Explorer Right-Click Menu in Win 7 or Vista
    How-To Geek

[/os/windows/software/wpkg] permanent link

Sat, Mar 06, 2010 5:57 pm

Using Multiple Install Conditions with WPKG

There can be zero or more conditions checked prior to installing software with WPKG. To perform multiple checks, enclose the checks with <check type="logical" condition="logicalcondition"> and </check>. You can use not, and, or, atleast, or atmost for logicalcondition. E.g. to have WPKG check for the existence of two files c:\windows\system32\ftlx0411.dll and c:\windows\winhlp32.exe, you could use the following:
<check type='logical' condition='and'> 
     <!-- The uninstall process doesn't remove winhlp32.exe, but does remove
     ftlx0411.dll -->  
     <check type="file" condition="exists" 
      path="%SystemRoot%\system32\ftlx0411.dll" />
     <check type="file" condition="exists" 
      path="%SystemRoot%\winhlp32.exe" />

In this case, WPKG will only consider the software installed if both files exist. If only one of them exists, the installation will proceed.


  1. Packages.xml
    WPKG | Open Source Software Deployment and Distribution
  2. Re: [wpkg-users] Check command
    Date: June 11, 2009

[/os/windows/software/wpkg] permanent link

Sat, Mar 06, 2010 5:43 pm

Incorrect Installed Software in WPKG

If WPKG is showing an incorrect list of installed software, e.g. it shows a program is installed, but the program is no longer installed because it was removed outside of WPKG, you can correct the problem by editing C:\Windows\System32\wpkg.xml on the system where the software was installed. Just remove the section of the file applying to that package. E.g. from the package id="pkgid" name="pkgname" revision="1" reboot="false" priority="0"> to the </package> for the particular package. Then, if you use wpkg.js /show:pkgid the package will no longer be shown as installed.

[/os/windows/software/wpkg] permanent link

Tue, Mar 02, 2010 4:09 pm

OS X Line Endings

Operating systems handle the line endings in text files in different ways. For DOS and Microsoft Windows, the end of a line is marked by a carriage return (CR) and a line feed (LF) character.

The CR and LF characters were used originally on teletypewriters, aka teleprinters, which were electromechanical typewriters used for telecommunications or to control early computers. Though, later, the carriage return would usually move the paper in the device to the next line as well, initially it would cause the cylinder on which the paper was held (the carriage) to return to the left side of the paper after a line of text had been typed without advancing the paper to a new line. Today, the return key you see on a computer's keyboard is a descendant of the carriage return on the earlier teletype machines. In most word processors today, hitting the return key will move the cursor to the beginning of the next line.

If you are working on a text file, e.g. one with a .txt extension, on a DOS or Microsoft Windows system, when you hit the return key two characters are inserted in the file at that point, a carriage return (CR) character followed by a line feed character, which have the following hexadecimal representations.

Carriage Return (CR)0D
Line Feed (LF)0A

But, if you are working on a Linux or Unix system, then only the LF character is inserted at the end of a line when you hit return. This may be due to a desire to reduce disk storage space for text files on early Unix computers; disk storage was much more limited than it is today.

Mac systems use yet another convention with OS X, even though it is a Unix-based operating system, with a heritage in BSD Unix . They use just the CR character to mark the end of a line.

DOS/WindowsCRLF0D 0A

So most Mac applications will, when you save a file as a text file, put just a CR at the end of the line. However, if you are editing a file from the command line on a Mac OS X system with a program, such as Vi, which is an editor that comes with Mac OS X, but which was originally developed for Unix, it will save a file with the LF (hex 0A) character at the end of lines.

E.g., I can create a text file test.txt with vi and put just the following two lines in it:


If I examine the contents of the file with the od program, I see the following, if I use the -c option to display ASCII characters or backslash escapes:

GS01:Documents jsmith$ od -c test.txt
0000000    1   2   3  \n   4   5   6  \n                                

The \n at the end of each line represents a newline

But, if I use -ax to see the ASCII and hexadecimal contents of the file, I see the following:

GS01:Documents jsmith$ od -ax test.txt
0000000    1   2   3  nl   4   5   6  nl                                
             3231    0a33    3534    0a36                                

I see that the lines are terminated with the hexidecimal 0A character for the newline character. Note: the hexadecimal representation that appears below the ASCII representation has the bytes reversed, i.e. 32 represents 2 and 31 represents 1.

If you need to convert a file that uses the Mac style of terminating lines with a CR character to the Linux/Unix style of using a LF character, then you can use the following procedure within vi taken from Using the shell (Terminal) in Mac OS X.

Type "1,$s/" and then press CTRL-V followed by CTRL-M. When you press CTRL-V nothing appears to happen, but the CTRL-M shows up as "^M". Continue with "/" and then CTRL-V again. Hit RETURN (which will show up as ^M and you could do that too - I just like it this way) and finally "/g". On your screen the whole thing looks like:


What does that mean? It means "Starting at line 1 and stopping at the end of the file (1,$), substitute (s) any CTRL-M (/^M/) with Unix CTRL-M (^M/) and do it for the entire line rather than just the first CTRL-M you find (g) (On most other Unixes I'd just do s/^M//g ; I don't know why Mac OS X didn't let me do that). It is a little strange that you replace ^M with ^M but get something entirely different, but that's a subject for another day. The morbidly curious can start by typing "man stty" if they need to know now.

You can then use wq to save the file under the same name or wq newfilename.txt to give the converted version a new name.

Or, alternatively, if you don't want to use the vi editor, you can use the following:

cat file1 | tr "\\r" "\\n" > file2

That will use the translate, i.e. tr, command to translate all instances of the carriage return character, represented by \r to the newline character, in this case the LF character used on Unix systems.

If you wish, you could also create a script, e.g., mac2unix to perform the translation:

test $# -eq 2 -a "$1" != "$2" && tr "\015" "\012" < $1 > $2 || 
echo "Usage: mac2unix f1 f2"

After changing the permissions on the file with chmod 755 mac2unix, you could use mac2unix file1 file to convert the contents of file1 to file2.

I receive email messages from a Unix system that contain gpg encrypted data on a Mac OS X system. If I try to decrypt them with gpg --decrypt file1.gpg >file2.txt on the Mac system, I receive the error message gpg: [don't know]: invalid packet (ctb=53). So I first need to convert file1 with this procedure before running gpg to decrypt it.

If you needed to convert a file on a Mac system to the text format for a DOS or Microsoft Windows system, you could create a script, e.g. mac2dos to perform the conversion:

test $# -eq 2 -a "$1" != "$2" && { mac2unix $1 $2; unix2dos $2 $2 } || echo "Usage: mac2dos f1 f2"

That script would rely on the mac2unix script you created previously.

To go the other way, e.g. from DOS/Windows to the Mac text format or from Unix to the MAC format, you could use the following:


test $# -eq 2 -a "$1" != "$2" && tr -d "\012" < $1 > $2 || echo 
"Usage: dos2mac f1 f2"


test $# -eq 2 -a "$1" != "$2" && tr "\012" "\015" < $1 > $2 || 
echo "Usage: unix2mac f1 f2"


  1. Carriage return
    Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  2. Newline
    Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  3. Teleprinter
    Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  4. Using the shell (Terminal) in Mac OS X
    Date: December 2002
    MacOSX articles at
  5. Vi
    Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  6. Line Breaks
    Date: July 1, 2003
    By: Rodney Sparapani/Medical College of Wisconsin
    The ESS-help Archives
  7. Why is the line terminator CR+LF?
    Date: March 18, 2004
    By: oldnewthing
    The Old New Thing

[/os/os-x] permanent link

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