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Sun, Mar 31, 2024 8:11 pm

Configuring PuTTY for X forwarding

The X Window System, aka X11 or simply X, provides a mechanism that allows you to have the graphical user interface (GUI) for an application running on a remote system to be displayed on the system on which you are running X server software. For systems running a Microsoft Windows operating system, you can use the free PuTTY program to establish a Secure Shell (SSH) connection to an SSH server and configure PuTTY to allow X forwarding so that you can run programs on the SSH server, but have their GUI displayed on the Microsoft Windows system on which you are running PuTTY.

[ More Info ]

[/os/windows/network/ssh/putty] permanent link

Sun, Mar 24, 2024 9:29 pm

Downloading CNN Videos with VideoProc Converter AI

If you wish to download videos posted on the Cable News Network (CNN) website, you can do so with VideoProc Converter AI from Digiary Software, Inc. The program is a commercial product, but you can download a free trial version. To download a CNN video, or videos from other sites, such as YouTube, take the following steps...

[ More Info ]

[/video] permanent link

Fri, Mar 22, 2024 9:44 pm

PowerShell Get-Content equivalents to Linux head and tail commands

The Windows PowerShell Get-Content cmdlet can provide the equivalent to the Unix/Linux head and tail commands. E.g., suppose a file named somefile.txt contains the following ten lines:
line 1
line 2
line 3
line 4
line 5
line 6
line 7
line 8
line 9
line 10

The following Get-Content commands could be used to obtain the first 5 and the last 5 lines in the file.

PS C:\Users\Arnold\Documents> Get-Content somefile.txt -Head 5
line 1
line 2
line 3
line 4
line 5
PS C:\Users\Arnold\Documents> Get-Content somefile.txt -Tail 5
line 6
line 7
line 8
line 9
line 10
PS C:\Users\Arnold\Documents> Get-Content somefile.txt -TotalCount 5
line 1
line 2
line 3
line 4
line 5

The TotalCount parameter can function like the Head parameter and will return the first x number of lines specified with x being 5 in the example above. You can also use it to obtain a specific line, though. E.g., if you wished to see the 7th line in the file, you could use the command below.

PS C:\Users\Arnold\Documents> (Get-Content Somefile.txt -TotalCount 7)[-1]
line 7
PS C:\Users\Arnold\Documents>

By default the delimiter for lines is the newline, aka end-of-line character, \n, but you can change that with the -Delimiter parameter.


  1. Get-Content
    Microsoft Learn

[/os/windows/PowerShell] permanent link

Thu, Mar 21, 2024 9:06 pm

Determining Excel's autosave value from the Windows registry

Microsoft Excel provides an autorecover feature that allows you to recover updates to spreadsheets or other files that were open in Excel even if changes were made since the last time the file was saved. Excel will automatically save files at a specified time interval so that if Excel crashes or the system crashes or loses power, you can recover the latest version of the file, or at least the file as it was the last time Excel automatically saved it. For the Office 365 version of Excel, you can find the autosave interval by clicking on File in Excel then selecting More, then Options, and then Save. The default value is 10 minutes but you can have Excel save more or less frequently.

Excel Save Options

You can also find the value by checking the Windows Registry, which you can view or edit by using the Registry Editor program that comes with Microsoft Windows. You can find the value by navigating to HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Office\16.0\Excel\Options and checking the value for AutoRecoverTime.

[ More Info ]

[/os/windows/registry] permanent link

Wed, Mar 20, 2024 9:39 pm

Location of Microsoft Excel recovery files

Microsft Excel can automatically save updates to spreadsheets. If Excel, or the system, crashes, when you reopen Excel you will see a Document Recovery pane on the left side of the Excel window with the message "Excel has recovered the following files. Save the ones you wish to keep."

Excel Document Recovery - Collectorz

Some of the documents listed may have been saved by the user without any subsequent changes being made and will have "Version created last time the user saved the file" beneath the file name as shown above.

[ More Info ]

[/software/office/excel] permanent link

Tue, Mar 19, 2024 9:38 pm

Obtaining information on a CD/DVD drive with WMIC

If you want to determine the model number of an optical drive, such as a CD or DVD drive, in a system running a Microsoft Windows operating system from a command-line interface (CLI), you can open a command prompt window and issue a Windows Management Instrumentation Command-line (WMIC) command: wmic cdrom get name (the value for caption may return the same information). E.g.:

C:\>wmic cdrom get name

C:\>wmic cdrom get caption


If you wish to determine whether media, such as a CD or DVD, is in the drive, you can use the command wmic cdrom get medialoaded. If there is no disc in the drive, the value for MediaLoaded will be FALSE. If there is a disc in the drive, the value will be true as in the example below where there is a CD in the drive.

C:\>wmic cdrom get medialoaded


[ More Info ]

[/os/windows/commands/wmic] permanent link

Mon, Mar 18, 2024 8:47 pm

Removing admin rights from programs running in a Sandboxie sandbox

Sandboxie is a free and open-source program that runs on systems using the Microsoft Windows operating system that allows you to run other programs in a secure sandbox. If you wish to run programs in Sandboxie without the programs having administrative rights, even if you are running Sandboxie from an account that is in the system's administrator group, you can do so by editing the Sandboxie configuration file, Sandboxie.ini. The file will usually be in the C:\Windows folder on most systems running a Microsoft Windows operating system. Sandboxie will first look for its configuration file in C:\Windows, but if it doesn't find the file there, it will then look in the Sandboxie installation folder, which will usually be C:\Program Files\Sandboxie or C:\Program Files\Sandboxie-Plus. When it finds an instance of the file, it will not check other locations. There is a DropAdminRights setting that can be used in the file. If you set the value to y for a sandbox, then any programs running in the sandbox will have administrative rights stripped from them, i.e,. the security credentials used to start the sandbox won't include membership in the Administrators and Power Users groups. If you are running Sandboxie from an account that is not an administrator account, then the setting won't have any effect.

[ More Info ]

[/os/windows/software/security/sandboxie] permanent link

Fri, Mar 15, 2024 10:43 pm

Getting the video resolution on a Windows system

If you need to determine the horizontal and vertical video resolution of the system you are working on from a command-line interface (CLI) on a Microsoft Windows systeem, you can open a PowerShell window (you can type PowerShell in the Windows "search" field and click on PowerShell when you see it in the returned results) and issue the Windows Management Instrumentation Command-line (WMIC) command Get-WmiObject win32_videocontroller | select caption, CurrentHorizontalResolution, CurrentVerticalResolution.

PS C:\> Get-WmiObject win32_videocontroller | select caption, CurrentHorizontalResolution, CurrentVerticalResolution

caption             CurrentHorizontalResolution CurrentVerticalResolution
-------             --------------------------- -------------------------
NVIDIA Quadro K2000                        2560                      1440

PS C:\>

If you need to determine the resolution on another system in the same Windows domain on the local area network (LAN), you can add -ComputerName followed by the name of the computer to the command as shown below.

PS C:\> Get-WmiObject -ComputerName apollo win32_videocontroller | select caption, CurrentHorizontalResolution, CurrentVerticalResolution

caption                         CurrentHorizontalResolution CurrentVerticalResolution
-------                         --------------------------- -------------------------
Microsoft Basic Display Adapter                        1024                       768

PS C:\>

[ More Info ]

[/os/windows/commands/wmic] permanent link

Thu, Mar 14, 2024 9:29 pm

Checking fan speeds and temperatures in a Linux system

A user reported the sound from a Linux CentOS server was loud. I thought the noise was likely from a fan in the system. The lm_sensors package provides the capability to check central processing unit (CPU) temperatures and fan speeds for systems running a Linux operating system. I first checked to see if the package was installed and found it was installed.

$ rpm -qi lm_sensors
Name        : lm_sensors
Version     : 3.3.4
Release     : 11.el7
Architecture: x86_64
Install Date: Sat 15 Oct 2016 12:14:14 PM EDT
Group       : Applications/System
Size        : 418761
License     : LGPLv2+ and GPLv3+ and GPLv2+ and Verbatim and Public domain
Signature   : RSA/SHA256, Sat 14 Mar 2015 04:15:54 AM EDT, Key ID 24c6a8a7f4a80eb5
Source RPM  : lm_sensors-3.3.4-11.el7.src.rpm
Build Date  : Thu 05 Mar 2015 10:48:12 PM EST
Build Host  :
Relocations : (not relocatable)
Packager    : CentOS BuildSystem <>
Vendor      : CentOS
URL         :
Summary     : Hardware monitoring tools
Description :
The lm_sensors package includes a collection of modules for general SMBus
access and hardware monitoring.

I then ran the sensors command to view the CPU temperature and fan speeds. The CPU and motherboard (MB) temperatures were high and the output showed 0 RPM for the chassis fan speed, indicating either there was no sensor monitoring its speed or it had stopped rotating.

$ sensors
Adapter: ACPI interface
Vcore Voltage:      +1.28 V  (min =  +0.85 V, max =  +1.60 V)
 +3.3 Voltage:      +3.36 V  (min =  +2.97 V, max =  +3.63 V)
 +5 Voltage:        +5.17 V  (min =  +4.50 V, max =  +5.50 V)
 +12 Voltage:      +12.41 V  (min = +10.20 V, max = +13.80 V)
CPU FAN Speed:     2518 RPM  (min =    0 RPM, max = 7200 RPM)
CHASSIS FAN Speed:    0 RPM  (min =  800 RPM, max = 7200 RPM)
CPU Temperature:    +79.5°C  (high = +60.0°C, crit = +95.0°C)
MB Temperature:     +61.0°C  (high = +45.0°C, crit = +95.0°C)



  1. How to find fan speed in Linux for CPU and GPU
    By: Vivek Gite
    Last updated: February 11, 2021

[/os/unix/linux/utilities] permanent link

Wed, Mar 13, 2024 10:10 pm

Using Generative AI in Microsoft Paint to Create Images

If you click on the Cocreator icon at the top, right side of the Paint window, if you aren't logged into a Microsoft account you will see a message that a Microsoft account is required.

Paint Cocreator Microsoft account is required

Scroll down to the bottom of that message where you will find a Sign-in button, then click on it to sign into a Microsoft account.

Paint Cocreator Microsoft account sign-in

You will then have an opportunity to describe the image you would like to create using Cocreator.

[ More Info ]

[/graphics/AI] permanent link

Tue, Mar 12, 2024 11:35 pm

Renewing a Let's Encrypt Security certificate for Dovecot

A message appeared on a user's PC indicating the security certificate had expired for today. The message came from Microsoft Outlook on her system. But when I checked the status of the system's security certificate in a browser by visiting in the browser, it was still showing as valid until Friday, May 17, 2024 at 12:02:51 AM. I thought the email server software, Dovecot, running on the server was using the same security certificate as the Apache webserver. When I viewed the SSLCertificateFile and SSLCertificateChainFile lines in the Apache configuration file, /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf, I saw they were pointing to the following .pem files (.pem stands for "Privacy-Enhanced Mail" and a .pem file holds a security certificate).

SSLCertificateFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/
SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/
Include /etc/letsencrypt/options-ssl-apache.conf
SSLCertificateChainFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/

When I checked the expiration of that security certificate, I saw it was valid until May 17.

# openssl x509 -enddate -noout -in /etc/letsencrypt/live/
notAfter=May 17 04:02:51 2024 GMT

You can determine the location of the .pem file used by Dovecot by looking for the ssl_cert variable in /etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-ssl.conf.

[ More Info ]

[/network/email/dovecot] permanent link

Mon, Mar 11, 2024 8:08 pm

Using Western Digital Dashboard to test a drive and obtain drive information

If you need to obtain detailed information on a Western Digital (WD) hard disk drive (HDD) or run a diagnostic test on a drive, you can use the free Western Digital Dashboard diagnostic tool from Western Digital. You can also use the program to update the firmware for a drive.

When you first run the program, you will see a My Devices window displaying the Western Digital drives the software has found, both USB-attached and internal disk drives. Other storage media will be shown under Other Devices.

Western Digital My Devices

Click on the Western Digital drive you wish to check on to see details on that drive including disk space used, disk space available, and disk space capacity as well as the interface speed, drive temperature, health, and performance information.

[ More Info ]

[/pc/hardware/hdd] permanent link

Sat, Mar 09, 2024 12:50 pm

Using Disk Management on a Windows system to view partition information

The Disk Management utility that comes with Microsoft Windows operating systems can be used to view details of drives and partitions in the system and attached to the system via USB. To start the utility, you can type diskmgmt.msc in the Windows search field, which you can access by clicking on the magnifying glass icon at the bottom of the screen on a Windows 11 system or by typing diskmgmt.msc in the Type here to search field on a Windows 10 system. To use the utility, you must run it as an administrator, so if you are not logged into an administrator account, you need to right-click on the utility when you see it returned in the search results and choose "Run as administrator".

Disk Management - Runas administrator

[ More Info ]

[/os/windows/utilities/diskmgmt] permanent link

Fri, Mar 08, 2024 7:33 pm

Downloading Smithsonian Associates Encore Videos

If you purchase a Smithsonian Associates class, but are unable to watch the class via the Zoom session at the time scheduled for the live presentation, you can usually log into your Smithsonian Associates account and go to "View my Encores recordings" to watch the class up to 72 hours after the live presentation. At "Welcome to Associates Encores," you will see the following:

Many—but not all—live-streamed programs are recorded. We understand it's not always possible to watch a program in real time, and as a courtesy to ticket buyers we are glad to make recordings available within 24 hours after the program has taken place. The recordings can be viewed for up to three days (72 hours) after they become available.

SmithSonian Associates has stated that they don't have sufficient storage space to make the recordings permanently available. If you can't watch the recording within the 3 days it will be available or want to have a permanent copy available for future reference, you can take the steps listed below to download an MP4 file of the recorded presentation.

If you click on the Watch button from your Encores page on the Smithsonian Associates website, you will be taken to a Zoom webpage. You can watch the video from that page, but if you right-click on the video, you will not see any option to save it. So you need to install a browser extension that will enable right-clicks to work on pages where they have been disabled.

Note: the instructions below are specifically for the Brave browser on a Microsoft Windows system, but the procedure for other browsers is likely to be similar.

[ More Info ]

[/video] permanent link

Thu, Mar 07, 2024 11:56 pm

Table Attributes Deprecated in HTML 5

In HTML 4, you could use <table width="100%">. In HTML 5, using width in that way has been deprecated in favor of putting the width within a style designation. If you use <table width="100%"> in an HTML 5 webpage and check the page with the W3C HTML validation tool, you will see the message " Error  The width attribute on the table element is obsolete. Use CSS instead." You can use the following, instead:

<table style="width: 100%;">

The same is true for specification of the width of <td> table elements. Under HTML 4, the following was ok:

<td width="33%" align="left">

In the above HTML code, the cell width could be specified as 33% of the table width and text in a cell could be left-aligned with align="left". Under HTML 5, though, both specifications are considered obsolete and the following should be used, instead:

<td style="width:33%; text-align:left;">

If you need to center the text, you can use text-align:center, instead. If you wish to vertically align an element in a table cell, such as text or an image, in HTML 4 you could use the following:

<td valign="top">March 12</td>

In HTML 5, you can use the following instead of the above deprecated use of valign:

<td style="vertical-align: top;">March 12</td>

[ More Info ]

[/network/web/html/css] permanent link

Wed, Mar 06, 2024 10:56 pm

Obtaining processor information with WMIC

You can obtain information on the Central Processing Unit (CPU) in a system running a Microsoft Windows operating system (OS) using Windows Management Instrumentation Command-line (WMIC) commands. To see the value of all parameters, open a command prompt window and issue the command wmic /namespace:\\root\cimv2 path win32_processor get /format:list (using the /format option, you can see the information in a more readable fashion).

C:\>wmic /namespace:\\root\cimv2 path win32_processor get /format:list

Caption=Intel64 Family 6 Model 85 Stepping 4
Description=Intel64 Family 6 Model 85 Stepping 4
Name=Intel(R) Xeon(R) Gold 5120 CPU @ 2.20GHz


[ More Info ]

[/os/windows/commands/wmic] permanent link

Tue, Mar 05, 2024 10:52 pm

Checking SMART status, fan speed, and temperature on a Microsoft Windows system

A user sent me a text message today stating she heard a strange noise from one of the systems in her office today. The photo she sent with the text message showed me the system she referenced was the domain controller in her office. I thought the noise likely came from a fan or disk drive, so I remotely connected to the server and checked the Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology (S.M.A.R.T or SMART) status of the drives attached to the system — many drives have a self-monitoring capability built into them that can provide diagnostic information on the drive, including information that may reveal to you that the drive may fail soon).

I checked the status of drives attached to the system by opening a command prompt window and issuing a Windows Management Instrumentation Command-line (WMIC) command, but the results indicated all of the drives were OK.

C:\>wmic diskdrive get status, size, model
Model                            Size           Status
DELL PERC S150 SCSI Disk Device  999642954240   OK
WD Elements SE 2622 USB Device   1000169372160  OK
PNY USB 2.0 FD USB Device        62018611200    OK


[ More Info ]

[/os/windows/utilities/sysmgmt] permanent link

Mon, Mar 04, 2024 9:46 pm

Accessing ClamWin scan results when the option to save a report is grayed out

I ran a scan with ClamWin, a free and open-source antivirus program for Microsoft Windows systems, on a user's system recently when she thought the system might be infected with malware. I ran the ClamWin scan after I scanned the system with McAfee AntiVirus, the active antivirus program on the system providing real-time protection, which did not find any malware. The scan, which ran for many hours, flagged many files as containing malware. It was difficult to note the names and locations of files flagged as containing malware when they were flagged as the results would scroll quickly by as the program went on to scan other files. As I assumed I would be able to save the results to a file when the scan completed, that did not concern me. However, when the scan completed I was unable to save the results to a file because the button that would allow me to save the results was grayed out.

You can still access the results of a scan in such cases, though, because when you exit from viewing the scan results, the program automatically appends the results to C:\ProgramData\.clamwin\log\ClamScanLog.txt. The ProgamData directory is a hidden directory that you won't see in the Windows File Explorer unless you have configured it to display hidden files and folders. You can see the directory is present if you open a command prompt window and issue the command dir /ah — the "/ah" tells the dir command to display files and folders with the attribute "hidden." E.g.:

C:\>dir /ah
 Volume in drive C is OS
 Volume Serial Number is 4445-F6ED

 Directory of C:\

08/21/2022  07:38 PM    <DIR>          $Recycle.Bin
07/08/2017  03:45 PM    <DIR>          $Windows.~WS
02/14/2024  10:43 AM    <DIR>          $WinREAgent
10/30/2015  02:18 AM                 1 BOOTNXT
08/21/2022  01:01 PM               112 bootTel.dat
02/28/2024  03:54 PM    <DIR>          Config.Msi
11/04/2011  01:20 AM            30,425 dell.sdr
07/14/2009  12:08 AM    <JUNCTION>     Documents and Settings [C:\Users]
03/03/2024  11:51 PM             8,192 DumpStack.log.tmp
03/04/2024  03:51 PM     6,373,736,448 hiberfil.sys
01/30/2012  09:36 PM    <DIR>          MSOCache
03/03/2024  11:51 PM     8,589,934,592 pagefile.sys
03/03/2024  09:48 AM    <DIR>          ProgramData
10/11/2023  09:00 AM    <DIR>          Recovery
03/03/2024  11:51 PM       268,435,456 swapfile.sys
01/28/2012  08:26 PM    <DIR>          System Recovery
03/04/2024  08:00 PM    <DIR>          System Volume Information
               7 File(s) 15,232,145,226 bytes
              10 Dir(s)  795,701,448,704 bytes free


Though the log file containing scan results is beneath a hidden directory, you can access it from a text editor such as Windows Notepad by typing in the directory path and file name, i.e., C:\ProgramData\.clamwin\log\ClamScanLog.txt when you choose Open to open a file, or you could open it from a command prompt window as shown below.

C:\&>notepad C:\ProgramData\.clamwin\log\ClamScanLog.txt


The ClamScanLog.txt file will contain the results of all scans run on the system, unless it was edited to remove prior results, with the results of the latest scan at the bottom of the file.

[/security/antivirus/clamav] permanent link

Sat, Mar 02, 2024 9:01 pm

Location for PuTTY Tunnel Information

PuTTY stores information about sessions you have created to connect to a particular host in the Windows Registry at HKEY_CURRENT_USER\SOFTWARE\SimonTatham\PuTTY\Sessions. If you want to view the SSH tunnels configured for a particular host, i.e., the port forwarding settings for that host, you can navigate to HKEY_CURRENT_USER\SOFTWARE\SimonTatham\PuTTY\Sessions\SessionName\PortForwardings where SessionName is the name you have given to the session associated with the host. E.g., suppose you regularly establish an SSH connection to and have named a session for that site MySite. You could navigate to HKEY_CURRENT_USER\SOFTWARE\SimonTatham\PuTTY\Sessions\MySite\PortForwardings to find the port forwardings settings. If you had named the session My Site, there would be a %20 in the session name stored in the registry as %20 is an HTML representation for the space character. You can doubleclick on the PortForwardings key in the right pane of the registry window to see the values stored in the key. You might see something like the following:


[ More Info ]

[/os/windows/network/ssh/putty] permanent link

Fri, Mar 01, 2024 8:43 pm

Clearing the formatting for a paragraph in Word in Office 365

If you are using the Word application in Office 365/Microsoft 365, if a paragraph, or multiple paragraphs, in a document contains formatting information, such as a gray background, text coloring, etc. that you wish to remove, you can change the style of the paragraph to eliminate that styling information by highlighting the paragraph, or paragraphs, then choosing Styles from the menu that pops up, then "Clear Formatting".

Clear Formatting - Office 365 Word

[/os/windows/office/word] permanent link

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